Tag: "forebrain" at biology news

Study explores gene transfer to modify underlying course of Alzheimer's disease

... showed that NGF or NFG gene delivery to the basal forebrain prevented the death of the same group of cells (cholinergic neurons) which undergo severe degeneration and death in Alzheimer's disease patients. NGF restored atrophied (shrunken) brain cells to near-normal size and quantity and also restored axons c...

XsalF comes to the fore in brain regionalization

...udies have indicated that the specification of the forebrain (an anterior structure, presumed to be induced by ...dentity in Drosophila, regulates the expression of forebrain and midbrain-specific genes. A series of experiments in which XsalF was misexpressed, deleted and it...

'Dissecting sleep' by studying the strange phenomenon of cataplexy

...pothalamus extend themselves into the areas of the forebrain and brainstem known to control sleep and wakefulness. Their latest findings also offer insight into the basic molecular mechanism of narcolepsy and cataplexy. Humans with narcolepsy have reduced numbers of neurons that release small proteins called h...

Reward mechanism involved in addiction likely regulates pair bonds between monogamous animals

...distribution of two brain receptors in the ventral forebrain of monogamous prairie voles that have been previou... neurochemicals in separate regions of the ventral forebrain in male and female vole brains," said Young, "the OTR and V1aR systems appear to activate two separa...

JCI table of contents, 15 October, 2003

...essor and is expressed in early development in the forebrain and later in the anterior pituitary gland. Mutations within HESX1 are associated with septo-optic dysplasia and mild hypopituitarism. Mehul Dattani and colleagues from the London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology now describe the clinical character...

As autumn approaches, this chickadee's brain begins to expand

...ippocampus is located on the dorsal surface of the forebrain right beneath the skull. In mammals, the hippocampus is located beneath the cortex. In the spring, when its feats of memory are needed less, the chickadee's hippocampus shrinks back to its normal size, Saldanha says. "To see this happen under natural...

Four gene 'micronet' found to regulate social behavior in female mice

...ry time." The researchers hypothesize that a basal forebrain system brings together estrogen-responsive neurons and oxytocin-producing neurons to regulate and modulate social recognition. For mice, this function begins in the nose. Animals detect chemical cues though the main olfactory system, which processes ...

New study clarifies connection of brain and heart failure

...sensory neurons at specific sites in hindbrain and forebrain that lack a blood-brain barrier or by inducing the...tion. Interestingly, the cardiovascular regions of forebrain that sense and respond to circulating peptides also process the signals originating in cardiovascula...

St. Jude researchers show that the Six3 gene is vital in the creation of the brains complexity

...ryonic part of the brain called the forebrain. The forebrain is destined to contain, among other structures, th...at the Six3 gene ensures proper development of the forebrain by halting the activity of another gene, called Wnt1, which had previously been shown to control the...

The making of a brain

...factor in the normal development of the vertebrate forebrain -- the part of the brain that is responsible for s...n malformation characterized by the failure of the forebrain to divide into hemispheres during development. While it is estimated that HPE affects 1 in 5,000-10,...

Mouse model links alcohol intake to marijuana-like brain compounds

...wn as the limbic forebrain. The part of the limbic forebrain known as the nucleus accumbens plays a major role in mediating the rewarding properties of alcohol and cannabinoids and also is thought to help regulate appetite. The nucleus accumbens exerts its effects through the release of the neurotransmitter do...

Without water, the body will shut down its need to ingest food

...es in the tonicity of the circulation monitored by forebrain or other nonsplanchnic sites. Information from splanchnic sensors monitoring gut hydration may also play a role in the control of drinking, release of vasopressin and oxytocin, salt excretion, and gastric emptying. Throughout the remainder of this ce...

Researcher traces gene development in 'last common link'

...st that function and instead has evolved a role in forebrain development. "This shows us how old genes can give...wless fish and vertebrates and whether the role in forebrain development had yet been acquired." Fruit flies, mice, worms and apes share an amazing amount of...

Timing of chemical signal critical for normal emotional development

...o populations of serotonin receptors -- one in the forebrain and another deep in the brainstem -- was responsib... to a line of transgenic animals in which only the forebrain receptors were rescued from the gene knockout. This "rescue" line of mice behaved normally when tes...

Enzyme once thought harmful to Alzheimers patients now appears key to future treatment

...etylcholine as their neurotransmitter in the basal forebrain of AD patients occurs and depresses acetylcholine ... of acetylcholine from remaining cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. This action might serve to delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease linked to a reducti...

Scientists find alcohol, drugs boost endorphins in key forebrain region

...NC School of Medicine. "The name of this important forebrain region is the nucleus accumbens. We and others had suspected this response, but it had never been proven until now because methods were not available to test it. "In this latest work, Dr. Olive adapted a technique for quantifying endorphins and used ...

Chemical receptor key to fetal development

...ike breathing and other vital functions, while the forebrain handles intelligence," Dr. Poon explained. "The discovery in the brainstem of activity associated with learning supports my argument that there's also a lot of intelligence going on beneath our conscious being." The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) recept...

Brain neurochemicals, not gender, tell a female to act like a female

...ctive vocalization that is recorded when the basal forebrain is stimulated. However, females and the differen...regulation of gender-typical behavior by the basal forebrain is not necessarily limited by an animal's gonadal sex, even though sexual behavior and the gonads al...

Smells may trigger alcohol craving, and relapse, among alcoholics

... of alcohol and banana, but also showed changes in forebrain dopamine levels while waiting for, and after being presented with, their cue. Dopamine is one of the key components of the "pleasure and reward" system in the brain, a complex reward and reinforcement system. Several decades of research on the biolo...

How alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

...urons instead of their subsequent release into the forebrain area, in order to understand the real reasons for diminished dopamine activity. "We would like people to understand that not only alcohol exposure, cocaine exposure, and even lead exposure in the early stages can decrease the activity of dopamine ne...

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