Tag: "fragments" at biology news

HIV finds new way to play hide and seek

...ng platforms known as MHC molecules. These protein fragments are recognized by killer cells, which destroy the ...tected in this way, including altering the protein fragments that our immune system recognizes. This study identifies for the first time, in the course of a natu...

East African artifacts support evolution of symbolic thinking in Middle Stone Age

...tone Age tools. There are other ostrich eggshell fragments that may represent debris from bead manufacture. The Middle Stone Age in East Africa originates as early as 280,000 years ago, and is replaced by the Later Stone Age at about 45,000 years ago, though none of the Loiyangalani finds have been precisel...

Researchers use novel technology to extract RNA from archive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

...edure uses glass "chips" to hold thousands of gene fragments that can be visualized by a computer. Because genes RNA extracted from in a blood or tissue sample will bind to the corresponding gene fragment on the chip, researchers can analyze the expression of thousands of the sample's genes at once....

Gladstone study reveals how genetic factor may increase risk for Alzheimer's disease

...where in the brain apoE4 is broken down into toxic fragments that can impair the function and survival of nerve...s to apoE4's tendency to be broken down into toxic fragments when it is produced in neurons, the brain cells responsible for cognitive functions. Proteins can be...

'Library on a Slide': Whole genome microarrays for comparative genomics

...d a high-throughput method for isolating small DNA fragments to efficiently isolate high quality genomic DNA, and how they optimized the conditions for printing this genomic DNA at high density onto a glass slide. They also tested techniques for identifying individual target genes at high sensitivity using flu...

Stanford study questions identity of alleged Romanov bones

...chers determined the sequence of mitochondrial DNA fragments from the presumed Romanov skeletons and found that...s in an area of permafrost explains how larger DNA fragments were stable enough to be recovered in the original analyses. Knight agrees that frozen DNA is more s...

JCI table of contents, March 1 2004

...of langerin, which facilitates uptake of bacterial fragments and perhaps their delivery to a specialized subcellular compartment. In an accompanying commentary, Akira Takashima from the University of Texas discusses the orchestration of lipid antigen presentation by LCs. TITLE: Langerhans cells utilize CD1a an...

Computer method identifies potentially active enzymes

...however, clashes occur in hybrids when they retain fragments from original enzymes that are not compatible with each other. "Pairs of residues that are too big, or too small, or have the wrong electrical charge can cause these clashes that prevent these hybrids from folding correctly," says Saraf. "We hypoth...

Comets spread Earth-life around galaxy, say scientists

...quickly erode the ejected boulders to much smaller fragments and that these tiny, life-bearing fragments may be driven out of the solar system by the pressure of sunlight in a few years. The solar system c...

Scientists at Scripps Research Institute describe structure of receptor on surface of 1918 flu virus

...te of Pathology were able to piece together enough fragments to reconstruct the sequence of the gene that coded for the viral protein hemagglutinin. These are the oldest viral sequences that have been reconstructed to date. Then Basler and Palese at Mount Sinai Institute of Medicine in New York managed to con...

JCI table of contents, January 2, 2004

... by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Cleaved actin fragments are present in muscles of rates with muscle atrophy from diabetes or uremia and fragment accumulation and the rate of muscle breakdown could be suppressed by a caspase-3 inhibitor. The report suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting caspase-3 a...

Genetic master switch sends bacteria toward 'seafood dinner'

...rough the ocean near the bacteria, these dissolved fragments of degraded chitin bind to the binding protein and remove the 'lock,' allowing the master switch to move into a 'plus' or 'on' position." When the switch is on, the bacteria's genes get to work, moving the organisms along the trail of partially deg...

'Panning for gold' in the maize genome

...archers then reassembled selected sets of sequence fragments into complete genes. This approach will be an important part of assembling the short pieces of DNA yielded by the two enrichments methods into complete gene clusters. According to Silverthorne, "Together, these findings suggest that scie...

Use of new direct thrombin inhibitor may be as effective as current standard treatment

... called pulmonary embolisms (PE), which occur when fragments of a blood clot break loose from the wall of the vein and migrate to the lungs, where they block a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. The American Society of Hematology is the world's largest professional society concerned with the ca...

Ultra-thin coating traps DNA on a leash

...y used with DNA microarrays to locate specific DNA fragments that have hybridized, the underlying glass and the coating need to be as non-fluorescent as possible. Pantano, working with Samuel D. Conzone and Daniel Haines, research scientists at Schott Glass Technologies, and EzzEldin Metwalli, Penn State p...

Link between alcohol consumption and muscle damage in females

...e analysis. Quantitative image analysis of the PCR fragments was performed and mRNA levels were calculated. Statistical Analysis: All data were expressed as means SE (n = 610). In all studies, significance was indicated when P 0.05. Results The results showed that: in male rats fed ethanol chronically,...

Scientists uncover novel role for estrogen in bone marrow

...l changes known to cell biologists, simultaneously fragments into thousands of new platelet cells. Dr. Nagata and colleagues set out to identify the cellular signal of this remarkable event. Previous work identified a gene regulator (what scientists refer to as a transcription factor) named p45 NF-E2 as being ...

New evidence says Earths greatest extinction caused by ancient meteorite

... does not occur on Earth. Some 40 pieces were tiny fragments of meteorite 4.56 billion years old, while other grains displayed metallic characteristics that were more indicative of being formed by extreme heat, such as that in a severe meteorite impact. The very fact that these grains had not deteriorated from...

NIST chemist receives rare forensics award

...r developed a concept for reducing the size of DNA fragments needed for a definitive identification,* which has proven useful in analyzing damaged or degraded DNA (see http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/newsfromnist_DNA.htm ). Butler is the author of a leading textbook in the field, and in 2002 he received th...

Extraterrestrial enigma: missing amino acids in meteorites

.... The fact that the meteorite was seen falling and fragments were collected quickly minimized the chances that they were contaminated by Earth amino acids. The Miller-Urey experiment, combined with the discovery of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites and the detection of glycine in molecular clouds, raise ...

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