Tag: "hippocampus" at biology news

Animal Studies Indicate Aging Brain Responsive To Estrogen

...e scientistssaid. "These studies suggest that the hippocampus of the female rat respondsbest if it is exposed to estrogen in cyclical fashion, as is the case inyoung adult female rats," Williams said in an interview. "Givingaging females estrogen in a constant fashion was no better for their brainthan giving no...

Pinpoint Gene Control Holds Promise For Nervous System Studies

...m plansto study the effect of increased NGF in the hippocampus on theseneurons. One area of special interest is the effect of NGF onmemory and learning, a link that may be relevant to patients withAlzheimer's disease, where NGF-sensitive neurons in the brain'sbasal forebrain are among those damaged....

Merging Physics And Neuroscience: First Evidence Of Self-Organized Criticality In Brain Networks

...es with Modelling In experimental work using the hippocampus of day-old rats,Cornell-Bell observed the formation and movement of these wavesusing a dye that fluoresces in the presence of calcium ions. Byaccurately recording the wave propagation using a video camera, shegenerated data from which the wave patte...

Extra Choline During Pregnancy Enhances Memory In Offspring

...argest electrical stimulusapplied to their brain's hippocampus -- the region where LTP occurs. But theoffspring...the smallest electrical stimulus, indicating their hippocampus was primed tolearn. "What this suggests is an actual change in brain circuitry brought about...

New Clue To apoE Function

... converged, they covered themwith neurons from the hippocampus of normal embryonic mice, mimicking thecommunity o...trocytes and neurons that exists in the brain. The hippocampus isa seahorse-shaped structure associated with memory and learning, functions thatare compromised in ...

Inhibitor Shows Potential To Protect Infant Brain

... of tissue in the affected hemisphere. The cortex, hippocampus and striatum had shrunk, and the fluid-filled ventricles had expanded. But the researchers saw quite a different picture when they analyzed the BAF-treated rats. "On average, the control animals lost about 50 percent of the tissue in these regions, w...

Learning To Feel Chronic Pain

...d long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP in the hippocampus is associated with learning and memory. Zhuosuggests that pain learning also is accomplished through LTP. After intense orpersistent pain, dorsal horn neurons and the RVM learn to anticipate pain, andthey continue to transmit pain signals back to the...

A Common Microbe Could Help To Trigger Alzheimers

...eumoniae in 17 of theAlzheimer's sufferers, in the hippocampus and temporal cortex. These are theparts of the brain which usually sustain most damage in Alzheimer's disease.Unaffected areas of the brain were much less likely to harbour the bacterium.The bacterium turned up in the brain of only one of the non-Alz...

Study Finds Evidence Linking The Brain's Cognitive Control Regions With Stress Control Regions

...ount ofstress-generated expression of GAD67 in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Theinduction was rapid and transient, suggesting an immediate need to manufactureGABA in the acute stress situation. Other rats were exposed to chronic intermittent stress for two weeks. The stress areas in the brains of th...

Life Among Dead Brain Cells: Discovery Could Help Improve Memory Capacity Of Stroke Victims

...rodents after stroke in an area ofthe brain -- the hippocampus -- which controls memory. "This region is important for new memories," says Sharp. "If you lose thisregion of the brain, you're unable to remember new sights, sounds and otherexperiences. You might remember your mother and father or somethi...

A Real Smart Asp: Snakes Show Surprising Ability To Learn

...number of hippocampal cells, and in lizards, ifthe hippocampus is removed, it can grow back -- and skills lostreturn as if by magic. It's Holtzman's theory that what holds for snakes, lizards,and birds may also hold for their evolutionary descendants --humans. If he and his colleagues come to understand how...

Study Finds Choline Deficiency Harms Memory Center In Mammals' Brains

...hanged the structure of those memory centers - the hippocampus and septum -- byreducing cell division, changing cell migration and by increasing the number ofcells that die prematurely. Although the research took place on rats, somethingsimilar could happen in human babies, researchers say. "We already knew that...

NICHD Researchers Discover Gene For Major Brain Structure

...t intounderstanding the complex molecular basis of hippocampus development. Effortsof this nature may one day le...gnized. Dr. Westphal said the layersin the normal hippocampus are analogous to patterns in the layers, or strata,seen in exposed rock formations. "The mal...

Scientists discover addition of new brain cells in highest brain area

...helped this erosion byproving neuro-genesis in the hippocampus of several types of monkeys. The new finding in the cerebral cortex is much more dramatic, the Princeton teambelieves, because the cortex is the largest and most advanced part of the brain.After the discoveries in the hippocampus, says Gould, most s...

Old brains can learn new tricks!

...y recruiting 'unique' areas ofthe brain, including hippocampus and dorsal prefrontal cortices. Scientists aremost... fascinated by the older brain's activation of the hippocampus because thisarea is generally used for more complicated memory tasks such as learning linesfrom a Sh...

Exercise improves learning and memory

...rger area of the brain called the hippocampus. The hippocampus plays a central role in many memory formation processes, including spatial learning-locating objects in the environmentand consciously recalling facts, episodes, and unique events. The investigators also examined brain slices from the two groups of ...

How alcohol gives, and then takes away

...transmitter of reward in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus areas of the brain. Serotonin is believed to have an additive or synergistic effect on dopamine. Alcohol is known to initially lead to an increase in dopamine release, which supposedly enhances reward/pleasure. However, chronic and/or high levels ...

Scientists map brain's primary memory network

...nstrate that different portions or segments of the hippocampus are active at different timesduring the task depen...al. "There's a distinct separation up and down the hippocampus with respect to whichgroups of cells fire during the different phases of the memory task," Deadwyler...

New link uncovered in nerve cell mechanism thought to power learning and memory

...alinow and his colleagues study how neurons in the hippocampus of rats respond to electrical stimulation like that which occurs during learning. In particular, they explore the mechanisms involved in long-term potentiation (LTP ), the synaptic strengthening believed to power learning and memory consolidation. ...

Chemical receptor key to fetal development

...see how knocking out the NMDA receptor affects the hippocampus on a cellular level, then how it affects learning and memory in the entire animal," Dr. Poon said. Unexpected Hitch There was an unexpected hitch: the animals died soon after birth. Professor Tonegawa and colleagues later solved the problem by r...

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