Tag: "hippocampus" at biology news

Triggering remembrances

...press.org ). It appears that the CA3 region of the hippocampus is essential for the phenomenon called pattern com...e supposed to go. The normal animals did fine. The hippocampus appears to be the place where some memories are initially processed and stored, said Johnston. He b...

Marijuana receptor gene abnormality in schizophrenia

..., especially in substantia nigra, globus pallidus, hippocampus and cerebellum. CB1 receptors are encoded by the CNR1 gene (MIM114610), which was cloned by Matsuda et al in 1992. CB1 is located at 6q14-q15, which was included in a schizophrenia susceptibility locus, 6q13-q26, revealed by Cao et al using two inde...

Mouse model mimics natural development of epilepsy

...abnormally organized collections of neurons in the hippocampus a region involved in human epilepsy. "In our model, the loss of TSC1 expression in astrocytes translated over time into defects in neuronal function and eventually led to epilepsy in mice," says Yamada. "We're very excited about this discovery beca...

Mother (nature) knows best

...ole in learning and memory. The D1 receptor in the hippocampus facilitates acquisition and retention of different working memory tasks In addition, D1 receptors are located on blood vessels. Activation of D1 results in widening of the arteries. Dopaminergic D1 binding kinetics were evaluated in the hippocampus,...

New findings reconfirm toxicity of Pfiesteria cultures

...When Levin injected this Pfiesteria toxin into the hippocampus of live rats, they developed severe learning deficits, supporting previous studies that have linked toxic Pfiesteria with profound learning disabilities in rats and humans....

Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy is risky too

...s in the development and maintenance of LTP in the hippocampus and other brain regions. Evidence suggests that t...d reduced plasticity of transmitter release in the hippocampus provides new data that moderate levels of alcohol exposure can alter specific learning processes med...

Environmental enrichment reverses learning impairments caused by lead poisoning

... previously shown that lead targets the NMDAR. The hippocampus is a brain region important for learning and memory. Previous research has determined that the NR1 subunit is essential for learning performance in the water maze. "We all recognize that children that are intellectually stimulated have a greater cap...

Structure of pain-modulating enzyme described by scientists at the Scripps Research Institute

... of the hippocampus. Binding to nerve cells of the hippocampus and other cells elsewhere in the body, THC creates a range of side effects as it activates CB-1 mediated signaling--including distorted perception, difficulty in problem-solving, loss of coordination, and increased heart rate and blood pressure, anxi...

The biology of induced memory

...ic shock on their paws. This paradigm engaged the hippocampus to process information about the context that can ... synthesis to be stored," explains Dr Nader. "The hippocampus also has a second level of consolidation called systems consolidation theory. This posits that the ...

Psychiatry receives grant establishing Conte Center to study molecular and cellular mood mechanisms

...esearch in the depression field has focused on the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex more recently evolved regions of the brain there is the increasing realization that several substructures beneath the brain's surface, called the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala, and the hypothalamus, are also involved. We a...

Human gene affects memory

...ming a working memory task that normally turns off hippocampus activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans revealed that those with one copy of "met" showed a pattern of activation along the sides of the hippocampus, in contrast to lack of activation among those with two copies of "val." Next,...

Common pediatric anesthesia drugs cause brain damage and learning and memory problems in infant rats

...he researchers also examined brain slices from the hippocampus of month-old rats. They ran electrical currents through those slices to induce a process known as long-term potentiation (LTP), which is thought to occur during learning and memory formation. Brain slices from rats who had been anesthetized with the ...

High sugar blood levels linked to poor memory

...gher than normal blood sugar levels) had a smaller hippocampus and scored worse on tests for recent memory. ... memory problems reported in his study. Since the hippocampus is especially vulnerable to injury, the inadequate sugar supply may cause it to atrophy over time. ...

Newly developed tool aids study of Fragile X syndrome

...ed the confirmation a step further. Looking in the hippocampus in normal mouse brains, she found glucocorticoid receptors in cell bodies and their associated dendrites. In experimental mice modified to not produce FMRP, the receptors were found in cell bodies but were virtually absent in the dendrites. Previous...

OHSU researchers discover brain cell mechanism possibly linked to mental retardation

...n a variety of regions of the brain, including the hippocampus and the cerebellum," explained Jacob Raber, Ph.D., an assistant professor of behavioral neuroscience and neurology in the OHSU School of Medicine. "Through studying mouse models, we hope to further understand and describe the roles of various brain r...

Johns Hopkins scientists create forgetful mouse

... thinks. Their experiments with neurons from the hippocampus of mice engineered to make only the "phosphate-free" version of GluR1 prove that phosphorylation of the protein is crucial for LTD and LTP to take place. "We've established that the two phosphorylation sites on GluR1 are crucial for retention of spat...

Prenatal exposure to nicotine increases risk of apnea in brains of newborn rats

...tion and density of GABAa receptors in the cortex, hippocampus and other areas of the brain. These observations led the Fregosi laboratory to hypothesize that prenatal nicotine exposure may also alter the function or density of the GABAa receptors on cells in the brain regions that control breathing. In earlie...

Science highlights of AAN Annual Meeting in Honolulu March 29 April 5

...who refused surgery had progressive atrophy of the hippocampus if seizures continued. In patients who became seizure-free from medical treatment, the loss of hippocampal tissue was arrested. This is further evidence that temporal lobe epilepsy is a progressive disorder that requires aggressive treatment, includi...

Monkey's memory cells caught in the act of learning

...ers measured activity of individual neurons in the hippocampus as two monkeys formed new associative memories while playing a computer game. The monkey had to gaze at one of four identical targets superimposed on a complex visual scene to win a juice reward. For example, white dots appeared at four locations ove...

Study links amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's brains to genes vital to normal memory

...ed in regions of the brain containing amyloid, the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but remained unchanged in amyloid-free regions of the brain. The researchers then compared their findings in the mouse model with an analysis of human Alzheimer's disease tissue from the Brain Donation Program at Sun Health Resea...

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