Tag: "membrane" at biology news
Plant-Based Fat Inhibits Cancer-Cell Growth By Enhancing Cells Signaling System, UB Researchers Show
... the cell membrane's cholesterol,which changes the membrane
lipid composition in such a way that signaltransduction (secondary messenger activity) is stimulated, and that activationinhibits cell growth," Awad explained. "If cell proliferation can be stopped before it becomes uncontrolled,cancer can b...
Breakthrough In Understanding The Biology Of Fat-- UCSF/Gladstone Scientists Discover Gene For Key Enzyme
...s and resists being pulledaway from the lipid-rich membrane
environment, Farese said. He and his colleagues took advantage of computer-based searching to"find" DGAT. The team used the known DNA sequence of a related enzyme--calledACAT--involved in cholesterol metabolism to screen computer databases c...
Mouse Study Trumpets New Way To Preserve Species
... the ice inside the cell expands, causing the cell membrane
to rupture." Cells also may be damaged if cooled too slowly, as they become susceptible to high concentrations of salts and other compounds that are left behind as the water turns into ice. The fragile reproductive tissues in females -- nam...
Cellular Target Of Leprosy, Deadly Viruses Found
...ll and his colleagues, this complex nestles in the membrane
of cells throughout thebody, acting as a receptor for a protein called laminin. Laminin, in turn, linkscells to the scaffolding, or matrix, that helps knit together the body'stissues. When the complex is absent, cells do not interconnect properly wi...
Scientists Show For The First Time How Leprosy Bug Targets Peripheral Nerves
...ll. Dystroglycan exists in two subunits, the outer membrane
alphasubunit and the transmembrane beta subunit. alpha-Dystroglycan interacts withlaminin-2 in the basal lamina, while beta-dystroglycan binds to cytoskeletalproteins in the peripheral nerves. In the Science paper, the researchers used a cell culture...
Experimental Therapy Makes HIV-Infected Cells Commit Suicide
...seem to transduce more efficiently across the cell membrane
and appear to be more easily refolded inside the cell than partly misfolded proteins," he says. By genetically manipulating bacteria, Dowdy's group has made 60 transducible proteins ranging in size up to 110,000 daltons. In contrast, typical...
Flexible Membranes - Moving Through The Twilight Zone Between The Nano- And The
...acted from a detailedanalysis of thermally-excited membrane
fluctuations. Surprisingly, the numericalvalue of ...rs, this approach has beenapplied to rather simple membrane
models. It is obvious, however, that the sameapproach can also be used for more complex models. It w...
One Way Traffic: Max Planck Scientists Idendified Genes Involved In Transporting An Important Plant Growth Factor
...lectively allow auxin to flow from one side of the membrane
to the other.Until now the nature of these doors was unknown. The only thing known was thatthey must be located at only one end of cells and that the other side of thecell must lack them. This would ensure that auxin could only flow in onedirection t...
How Nature Harvests Sunlight
...units. They all collect and arrange into a protein membrane
and feed energy into thebacterium's metabolism. Having an accurate model of the structure, Schulten said, "is like having theRosetta stone [a tablet of inscriptions found in 1799 that led to thedeciphering of ancient Egyptian writing]; it provides u...
Small G-Proteins Make A Big Difference -- Nerve Cell Signalling Is Regulated By
Arf-GTPases And Their Activators
...h msec7-1 and Arfsare very prominent regulators of membrane
transport in the Golgi apparatus ofall cells in th...he past few years, it concentrated onintracellular membrane
traffic in the Golgi apparatus. Nobody had the proteinson their list of possible synaptic players....
Penn State Engineers Develop New Simulation For Ultrafine Particle Growth Process
...es ranging from powdered milk production toceramic membrane
development to air pollution control. Dr. Themis Matsoukas, assistant professor of chemical engineering andleader of the project, says the new simulation is not only simpler than theothers available, but is also fast, accurate and uses only m...
New Insights Into The Transport Machinery Of The Cell: A Single Protein
Substitutes The Regulatory Machinery Specifying Endosome Fusion In Vitro
...e between the cell surface and theendosomes, small membrane
engulfed vesicles bud from the cell surface like s...Rab5 does not actalone: effectors are required for membrane
fusion activity. Nevertheless, theview of the machinery regulating this process was far from being c...
Plant-Based Fat May Reduce Risk Of Prostate Cancer By Altering Testosterone Metabolism, UB Study Shows
... "Every enzyme requires aspecific fluidity in the membrane
in which it resides in order to be activated,"he said. "If the membrane
is too fluid, the enzymes may not function properly." Other options include the possibility ...
Nerve Cells On The Go
...bryos use to transmit outside information from the membrane
allthe way to the actin cytoskeleton. In p...ommunication linking a receptor in a growth cone's membrane
to actin,the final agent of change. The cell's cytoskeleton is a continuously changing fabri...
Oregon Scientists Discover A Second Blood-Brain Barrier; Important Finding For Patients With Brain Cancers And Neurological Disorders
...atthe level of the basement membrane. The basement membrane
is a protein layersurrounding capillaries. Edward A. Neuwelt, M.D., professor of neurology at OHSU and theVAMC, describes the second barrier as a "spider web" because it seems to trapsome viral particles, while others ...
UI Study Reveals Important Information About Molecular Defect In Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
...in-glycoproteincomplex is thought to stabilize the membrane
against contraction-induced damage.Past studies have shown that mutations to the sarcoglycan complex cause varioustypes of limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases characterized by hereditaryprogressive muscle weaknes...
Vesicle Chemistry: A New Way To Get Life-Like Reactions
...searchers found that they can reliablycreate these membrane
sacs in a few minutes. They do so by floating a layer ofartificial membrane
on the surface of a mixture of a desired chemical and asuitable solvent, such as a mixture of alcoho...
Viral Harpoon Structure Suggests Measles, HIV And Ebola Viruses Related
...ke protein that is launched into thegel-like outer membrane
of the target cell. "It's much like a harpoon goinginto a target," said Lamb. He emphasized, however, that more research is needed to answer two importantquestions: What triggers the harpoon molecule to unfurl, and how does the fusionprotein refold...
Vastly Different Virus Families May Be Related
...in Illinois. The fusion protein is embedded in the membrane
that envelops the virus. Itserves as a grappling hook that snags the membrane
of a host cell and pulls thetwo membranes together so that they fuse into one, like soap bubbles, du...
Engineered Bacteria Scavenge Heavy Metals
...ial cells is sufficient. -- The bioengineered cell membrane
targets and transports only a specific metal,such ...ged metal is safely contained inside the bacterial membrane
untilreleased by high-temperature incineration. Then the pure metal can be recoveredand recycled. "...
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