Tag: "membrane" at biology news

Secret to Listeria's virulence provides clues to workings of other deadly intracellular pathogens, UC Berkeley scientists report

...e a speedboat. Eventually, they slam into the cell membrane and pop from one cell into the next, spreading the infection. While the comet tails have been observed and photographed for more than a decade (see http://cmgm.stanford.edu/theriot/movies.htm for movies), two years ago Matthew D. Welch, an assista...

Yale scientists give the Golgi apparatus its own identity, paving the way for more targeted cancer research

...lgi apparatus is normally thought of as a stack of membrane compartments through which the secretory proteins pass, but Warren and colleagues have been able to show that the Golgi has an existence even when these membranes are removed from the apparatus. "We found that there are proteins, which we term matrix...

Protein stimulates key link between nerve cells, suggesting possible target for mental retardation and nerve regeneration therapies

...otein in their normal location, the post-synaptic membrane of neurons, at an early stage of glutamate synapse development. They detected enhanced clustering and activity of glutamate synapse development, enhanced clustering and activity of glutamate receptors at the post-synaptic sites and an increase in...

Penn State researchers unravel key facts about how a virus exits a host cell

...e, says a virus must mature and "pinch off" a cell membrane before it becomes infectious. This pinching off process is called budding. In previous research, the Penn State researchers identified the Gag (groups specific antigen) protein as the viral encoded machinery that produces buds. By inserting the G...

Study provides new details of 'the birth of a virus'

...ke their escape and cloak themselves in the cell's membrane to avoid attack from the body's immune system. T... of RNA at this point - congregate inside the cell membrane like protesters pressing against a police barricade. The cell membrane begins to bulge and eventual...

University of Pittsburgh reports best gene delivery to date of protein missing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

... Dystrophin forms a bridge between the muscle cell membrane and each of these contractile bundles of actin and...anchored effectively on one end to the muscle cell membrane and on the other end to an actin filament. For many years, adeno-associated viruses were virtually i...

Function follows form in developing myocytes

...ther they are plated in 2 dimensions on an elastic membrane or maintained in 3 dimensions in organ culture, induces mRNAs for smooth muscle a actin and other gene products that are under control of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). SRF is alternatively spliced to generate an active isofor...

MIT develops filters for wastewater treatment, more

...he polymer precipitates out of solution, forming a membrane with a suprisingly ideal structure for filtration:...ll surface pores, with larger channels in the bulk membrane structure. Unfortunately, this process leaves a very small number of pores on the surface, and the ...

Cytoplasmic FRAP must enter and exit nucleus to perform

...n the cytoplasmic world between a mammalian cell's membrane and nucleus undergoes a "nuclear experience" that is necessary for regulating cell growth and division.Coupled with a similar finding involving a different protein in yeast cells, announced in the journal Cell in 1999 by Harvard Medical School resear...

Scientists discover potent protein that prevents HIV infection

... wide range of HIV strains from fusing to the cell membrane and thereby infecting it. The researchers say th...his protein plays a key role in allowing the virus membrane to fuse with the membrane of the cell it is attacking. Scientists have long targeted gp41, hoping th...

Study sheds new light on Lyme disease transmission

...cused on two (OspA and OspC ) of the more than 150 membrane proteins known to be associated with B. burgdorferi. "We wanted to see how these two proteins changed as the bacteria moved from the tick gut to the host," de Silva said. "And to our surprise, what we observed was not simply a matter of one protein...

Freezing human eggs - new findings point way to greater success

...ormation of ice crystals, which can pierce the egg membrane and kill the cell. The researchers further establi...yopreservation - possible hardening of the outside membrane of the egg or deficiencies in the cortical granules that normally prevent more than one sperm penetr...

A paradox helps explain how aspirin works

...atalyzes the generation of prostaglandin from cell membrane fatty acid precursors. But the suppression of prostaglandin production could not fully account for aspirin's effectiveness because, after 15 minutes, aspirin is broken down in the body and becomes salicylic acid, a completely ineffective inhibitor of...

Gene-trapping method powers discovery of new brain-wiring signals

...arker if the DNA had fused itselfinto a gene for a membrane protein, such as a receptor. With this refinement,called a “secretory trap,” the researchers were able to narrow downthe trapped genes to those coding for receptors of the kind involved in axonguidance. “Thesecretory trap vecto...

Nanopore detector shows discriminating taste in DNA molecules

...sis, called a nanopore detector, is built around a membrane containing a tiny pore just big enough for a singl... DNA to pass through. A voltage applied across the membrane generates an ionic current and pulls the negatively charged DNA molecules through the pore. A charac...

Treatment in mice proves effective against Duchenne muscular dystrophy

...in to treat a muscular dystrophy thats caused by a membrane protein deficiency," he said. "Or you could chemically stimulate integrin chain production from the patients existing integrin chain genes." Kaufmans lab discovered the molecule in question the alpha 7 integrin in 1985. A deficiency of this molec...

The first schizophrenia gene is discovered

...nels. Ion channel proteins are located in the cell membrane and assist transportation of electric currents along neurons. Mutations in the potassium channel KCNA1, another ion channel which is remotely related to WKL1, cause episodic ataxia, a rare movement disorder lacking psychotic episodes. In the mutated ...

Amoebas use "midwives" to reproduce

...me sugars. When an amoeba is trying to divide, the membrane in the area of its narrow "waist" stretches, undergoing enormous stress. This mechanical perturbation may cause the substance to be released into the nearby environment, thus "alerting" the "midwife" amoebas to come to the aid of the dividing amoeba....

Genetically engineered skin substitute is designed to promote wound healing

...ut our substitute is that it contains the basement membrane -- the matrix molecules that the cells of the epidermis like to sit on -- that retains the natural composition and topography of skin," he added. The genetically engineered skin also has high mechanical stability and is pliable, important advantages...

Virus studies reunite two families of major insect-borne viruses

...n ordered structure, with proteins imbedded in the membrane in specific patterns. However, the virus surface also contains a series of sugar molecules, located at sites called "glycosylation sites," attached to large, protruding protein spikes. The Purdue team developed modified varieties of the virus, gen...

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