Tag: "microtubules" at biology news

'Moss in space' project to test how plants grow 'up'

...te scaffold-like structure of microtubules and actin microfilaments within the cell. The earlier Shuttle experiment showed a surprising result that the organelles aggregated in clusters instead of being randomly located within th...

UIC scientists provide first images of HIV in living cells

... part of the host cell's own skeletal framework of microtubules as it makes its way from the outer membrane to the...ular motor. "Dynein is like a tractor trailer, the microtubules are the highway, and the HIV particles are the cargo," said David McDonald, assistant professor of m...

Study finds link between common neurological disorder and Alzheimer's disease

...rmal circumstances proteins move along a system of microtubules to reach all parts of the neuron. Problems with the internal transport of proteins can lead to neuronal malfunction and death. "This protein, kinesin-1, is like a locomotive that pulls cargo throughout the cell," says Ramin Shiekhattar, Ph.D., an ass...

Single virus tracing sets the stage for new infection-fighting drugs and gene-therapy strategies, Science authors say

...m, that consists of motor proteins which run along microtubules as tracks. Riding on the back of the motor proteins, they are transported within the cytoplasm," says Bruchle. Even in the nuclear area, where such motor proteins have not been observed before, viral particles seem to follow such tracks: "To our grea...

Supercomputer paints electric landscape of cellular structures

Researchers create atomic-resolution maps of microtubules and ribosomes SAN DIEGO, CA-Researchers at the University of California, San Diego have mapped key cellular structures using a new method to harness the power of supercomputing. The maps may point the way to understanding how those structures perfor...

Better computer modeling provides a new look at large biomolecules

...he scientists modeled the electrostatic charges on microtubules and ribosomes. Microtubules are hollow polymers of...microtubule instability and the mechanism by which microtubules dissociate could have therapeutic applications, since many anti-cancer drugs act to stabilize microt...

Walking proteins need to rock and roll, new study finds

...roup of proteins known as motor molecules that use microtubules to haul vital cargo through the cell. In 1985, bi... loaded with neurotransmitters from end to end via microtubules embedded in the nerve." He compares the movement to a relay race in which kinesin molecules hand off...

Putting randomness to work: unique form of nanoscale random motion may drive key cellular functions

... motion." Composed of fibrous proteins, the microtubules include sites approximately 8 nanometers apart where kinesin heads can bind chemically. To move along this pathway, Fox argues that the kinesins use "rectified Brownian motion" in the following steps: ATP binds to the leading head th...

Viruses concentrate

...nizing center (MTOC). Cellular train tracks called microtubules are required for both the establishment and maintenance of the two structures. The cores of the viruses are similar in size to the balls of unfolded proteins that are collected by the aggresome-forming machinery, although the virus must also have a m...

How the cell finds its center

...signal. But Tran et al. gather evidence that the microtubules themselves are being used as an intracellular ruler. The microtubules push against the end of the cell, thus pushing the nucleus away from the end of the cell. The likeli...

Hopkins' Young Investigators' Day winners shine in the spotlight

...that sperm entry into an egg triggers formation of microtubules in the embryo that, in turn, direct the rearrangement into a definite head and tail end of the developing animal. Clifford R. Weiss has shown the potential for magnetic resonance imaging in pinpointing the sort of arterial inflammation associated ...

New sub-cellular structure discovered

... spindle functions. For example, it is unclear how microtubules manage to pull on the chromosomes or how they align. "Coordinated molecular interactions between the microtubule spindle and the new nuclear spindle structure have the potential to provide the answers to many of these questions," Johansen exp...

Human reproductive success tied to mitochondrial organization in eggs

...controlled by arrays of tube-like structures. The microtubules are created and the mitochonria migrate along them...wn as cytoplasm, in the egg, Van Blerkom said. The microtubules originate from cell material contained in both the unfertilized egg and the sperm, Van Blerkom said....

A molecular motor's key role in cell birth

...ast that actin cables somehow guide the spindle of microtubules into the bud during orientation of the spindle. H...e protein Kar9p as part of the link that draws the microtubules of the spindle into the correct orientation. Kar9p, which is found in the bud, is able to grab hold ...

Study links two important cellular systems; increases prospects for new drugs for cancer, heart disease

...hers here have discovered that microtubules -- the subcellular scaffolding within cells -- may play a key role in harboring important proteins the cells need for signaling, gene expression and cell division: the Smads. The link betwe...

Pitt team first to illustrate mechanisms of chromosome missegregation in cancer cells

...s form at opposite poles of the cell. Thread-like microtubules attach each of the chromatids to the centrioles, f...des, the chromatids separate and are pulled by the microtubules to opposite poles. Thus, two identical pools of chromatids, the inherited genetic instructions of t...

Scientists figure out how cells' tiniest motors work

... operate on different kinds of tracks - kinesin on microtubules andmyosin on actin - but the cores of their motors are very similar, observes Sarah Rice, lead author onthe paper and a UCSF graduate student in cellular and molecular pharmacology. "The two motors handle the ATP chemical energy in a similar way," R...

Learning how cell's tiny motor powers its mobility

... tracks composed of infinitesimal filaments called microtubules thatcriss-cross the cell's interior. In the December 16, 1999, issue of the journal Nature , Vale and his colleagues describehow they analyzed the motion of individual kinesin molecules, ultimately pinpointing the portion ofthe kinesin protein res...

Harvard Medical School researchers discover first in a new class of mitosis inhibitors

...h it did not assemble thebipolar spindle that uses microtubules to line up the duplicated chromosomes andthen pull...efounding member kinesin transports vesicles along microtubules along neuronalaxons and in other cells. It so happened that Tarun Kapoor, also a postdoc inMitchison...

Plakin proteins brace nerve axons and allow for the transport of neurotransmitter vesicles

...filaments (think of them as hightension wires) and microtubules (the I-beam of the cell). Now, researchers led ...ules." An important component of the cytoskeleton, microtubules serve as the cellularhighway for the transport of vesicles and other proteins. "Stabilizingmicrotub...

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