Tag: "mutants" at biology news

Transparent fish provide window on blood formation and marrow transplantation

...nts of tagged blood cells into bloodless zebrafish mutants that lack a functioning blood-forming, or hematopo...precisely how the transplanted cells "rescued" the mutants by restoring their hematopoietic system. "In our most elaborate experiments, we produced donor fish ...

Researchers measure the 'heat of life,' offering clues to DNA damage

...al agents. "The only reason we are not a bunch of mutants walking around is that we have exquisite repair systems that can recognize these damaged sites and repair them before they replicate. And, if they do escape initial repair and replicate, we have additional repair systems that find the damage that wa...

Easily paralyzed flies provide clues to neurodegeneration

...n identifying, breeding and studying a raft of fly mutants that, when exposed to minor temperature change, be...n body temperature, "in less than 10 seconds, some mutants are completely paralyzed. Others become totally incapacitated by convulsive seizures. It's like flip...

Ability to smell food regulated by enzyme's interaction with RNA interference pathway

...ay and that many of the behavioral defects of ADAR mutants are caused by aberrant RNAi." RNA is a nucleic acid that is an essential component of all cells. In a process called transcription, the information in our DNA genes is passed to RNA. A second process called translation allows the information in RNA t...

Scientists identify molecular step that causes intoxication

...g effect, the scientists reasoned. They identified mutants in which the BK channels opened more often than us...fspring. They then screened thousands of different mutants for how they moved when exposed to alcohol, and thousands of others for their ability to lay eggs in...

New roles for protein modifications in cell migration

...naling molecules. On further investigation, MIG-23 mutants showed reductions in NDPase activity. The wild-type MIG-23 protein successfully rescued yeast mutants for NDPase, lending solid support to the case for the NDPase nature of MIG-23. The similarity betwe...

Winter weather turns on flowering gene

...m in plant biology and genetics. They screened for mutants that wouldn't bud after surviving temperatures just above freezing, and they found three - all lacking a gene now called VIN3. After further investigation, the researchers learned that an extended period of cooler temperatures prompts the VIN3 gen...

Simple sugars make cell walls like steel

...earch plant Arabidopsis, the researchers looked at mutants and found some that developed abnormally. The mutants the scientists studied had an area at the base of the embryonic plant stems, called the hypocotyls, ...

Bacteria lingering in body may pose future food poisoning risks, Stanford study finds

...w planning to investigate whether various Listeria mutants replicate in the gall bladder and to look for poss...utic intervention. "We'd like to know how Listeria mutants that cannot replicate inside host cells gain access to the gall bladder," said second author Kevin F...

Major boost for European zebrafish research

...ish carrying genetic mutations. In addition to the mutants with defects in early development identified in pr...t will provide European researchers with zebrafish mutants for specific genes on demand. This will let them study genes of particular interest for which no mut...

Study: Mimicking viruses may provide new way to defeat them

...f the March paper. Given that drug-resistant virus mutants can arise, Kim and Yin wondered if there might be some antiviral strategies that are harder for a virus to beat. An unexplored approach came to mind. Rather than designing a drug molecule that inhibits virus proteins, the UW-Madison researchers creat...

Chromatin remodeling may open up DNA to RNA-mediated silencing

...eosomes in chromatin. In a genetic a screen for mutants defective in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana, Dr. Tatsuo Kanno and colleagues identified DRD1, a previously undefined SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein in plants. The involvement of DRD1 in RNA-directed DNA methylation suggests t...

Cannabinoids spell relief in colon inflammation

...hat is required to degrade endocannabinoids. These mutants contain much increased levels of endocannabinoids. Consequently, these mice were more resistant to inflammation. In another set of experiments, it was shown that the endogenous cannabinoid system enhances its activity during inflammation. The neurons...

22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

...n so doing, they found their orthogonal synthetase mutants that load the orthogonal tRNA with only the desired unnatural amino acid. When a ribosome reading an mRNA within the E. coli cells encounters UAG, it inserts the unnatural amino acid O-methyl-L-tyrosine. Furthermore, any codon in an mRNA that is sw...

'Cardiofunk' mutation: Probable source of congenital heart defects

... other factors," Stainier said. "Identifying other mutants with a similar defects should provide the answer." The study offers a new approach for early detection of human heart defects, he said. It is the first genetic demonstration that function is required for form to mature. Lead author on the research wa...

Zebrafish model human development and disease

...ish blood flow. The characterization of additional mutants will shed further light on this issue. Valve or septal defects represent 40% of cardiac anomalies in humans. Bartman and colleagues suggest that, by analogy with zebrafish, some of these defects may result from congenital defects affecting very early...

Mutant biological machine makes proteins but can't let go

... entirely lacks. "We had hoped to see one of the mutants really stand out as being incapable of doing this reaction," says Green. "But instead, none of the mutants could do it efficiently, which left us scratching our heads." So the researchers tested the ribosome...

The mother lode of mutations

...anding the processes involved." This collection of mutants provides the first molecular analysis of maternal ... The first paper describes 21 maternal-effect mutants from the earliest stages of embryonic development, when it is literally only hours old. These mutant...

Tracing a killer's path in Lou Gehrig's disease

...ed tissues represents the common property of these mutants that initiates a cascade of damage," they wrote. In a second paper, Robert H. Brown, Jr., and his colleagues shed light on a specific mechanism by which the mutant SOD1 kills spinal cord neurons once it reaches their mitochondria. Brown and his colle...

Secret behind hard exoskeletons, spreading wings revealed

...d not harden completely. She found that all of the mutants had mutations in the gene they had identified for ...ples of central nervous systems from the fruit fly mutants into blow flies that had been treated to prevent bursicon release. The shells of the blow flies did ...

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