Tag: "neurotransmitter" at biology news

Gene-Altered Mouse May Provide New Insights To Parkinson's Disease, Substance Abuse And Schizophrenia

...the molecular "locks" on nerve cellsthat receive a neurotransmitter "key," causing a neuron to firea nerve impulse. Tr...the nerve cell,to prepare for the next burst. The neurotransmitter dopamine is stored in tiny hollow spheres, called vesicles,within synaptic "bulbs," which are tiny b...

Researchers Pinpoint Site For Petit Mal Seizures In Brain

...und in cells throughout the body, and respond to a neurotransmitter signal called gamma aminobutyric acid, or GABA, which is one of a dozen or so known neurotransmitter molecules. GABAb receptors are thought to act as a brake on nerve cell activity, Hosford said. But t...

Harvard, Duke Researchers Discover 'Off-switch' Inside Human Cells

... proteins may play in controllingthe duration of a neurotransmitter or hormone-dependent response, it ispossible that these proteins may be involved in many important aspects ofsignal transduction within normal and diseased states of the body,"said Harvard's Ernest Peralta, the paper's other senior co-author. He ispr...

New Software Provides Quick Analysis of ion-Channel Activity

...r diseases, an amino acid in the receptors for the neurotransmitter has been altered, he said. These alterations cause the ion channels either to stay open too long or not long enough, resulting in clinical disorders where the muscles are either too weak or too excitable. By analyzing the currents that are produced...

Laser Microscope At Cornell Images Serotonin In Live Cells

...ed at Cornell, have produced images displaying the neurotransmitter serotonin in live cells in real time, and they hav...research associate, all at Cornell. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is becoming increasingly important as medical science learns of its role in a host of human dis...

Merging Physics And Neuroscience: First Evidence Of Self-Organized Criticality In Brain Networks

...tes can becomechemically unbalanced if levels of a neurotransmitter kainateexceed a critical threshold. Kainate is ge...balanced and create no waves. Adding quantities of neurotransmitter to the brain system increasesthe firing rate and therefore the formation of calcium ion waves. "The...

Growth Factor Stimulation Leads To Increase In New Neurons In The Striatum And Cortex Of The Brain

...s arisingin the SVZa, for example, manufacture the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyricacid (or GABA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme used during thesynthesis of dopamine. Cells that use these neurotransmitters in the striatumdie in two devastating neurological diseases: GABA-containing cells die inHunting...

Genes May Affect The Response To Drugs That Treat Mental Illness

...study itwas hypothesized that genetic variation in neurotransmitter receptors couldinfluence response to antipsychotics targeting them. In this way, alterations ingenes coding for receptor proteins may affect their function, expression orbinding affinities for antipsychotic drugs which may in turn alter the drug'sthe...

Candidate Regulator Of The Temporal Component Of Neurotransmitter Release Identified

...events in eukaryotic cells, is also involved in neurotransmitter release at synapses. Their results, appearing i...ular events that may control the time course of neurotransmitter release. Nerve cells release neurotransmitter by allowing transmitter containing organe...

Extra Choline During Pregnancy Enhances Memory In Offspring

...try. Rather, cholineaffects a completely different neurotransmitter system, such as glutamate. Swartzwelder s...stry withinthe various brain circuits to see which neurotransmitter systems are likely toplay a role in enhancing LTP....

Yerkes Primate Research Center Of Emory University Reseachers Find Hunger Regulated By Novel Neurotransmitter

...ory University havediscovered in the brain a novel neurotransmitter that helps control food intake and seems to bepart... 4), available in May on the Synapse website. The neurotransmitter is called CART peptide, for Cocaine and Amphetamine RegulatedTranscript, and its role in feeding was...

Neurogenetics Lab Scan Suggests Genetic Linkage On Chromosomes 4 And 11

...volved in serotonin biosynthesis. With other brain neurotransmitter systems, dopamine and serotonin long have been implicated in alcoholism, in particular relation to alcohol's rewarding effects and the reinforcement of drinking behavior. "From the early work of former Scientific Director Markku Linnoila, M.D., Ph....

COGA Genome Scan Suggests Linkage On Chromosomes 1,2,4, And 7

...x disorders, involving multiple genes and multiple neurotransmitter systems that can differ from one family, even one individual, to the next, NIAAA Director Enoch Gordis, M.D. told reporters at a National Press Club briefing held today. The briefing covered initial scientific publications from COGA, directed during ...

Researchers Identify Function Of Brain Receptor Subunit Linked To Memory, Stroke, Dementia

...rve cells that admits calcium whenactivated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. The subunit, dubbed NR3A, appearsto regulate the activity of the NMDA receptor in ways that may protect nervecells from damage. Their findings are published in the May 28 Nature. NMDA receptors are important in nerve cell migratio...

Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Share Tetrameric Structure With The Voltage GatedPotassium Channel

...otein is thought to be able to bind a neurotransmitter molecule. After binding of the neurotransmitter, ...y assembly of five proteins, as is assumed for all neurotransmitter activated receptors. This view is now challenged by a counting method developed by Chri...

Neurons Control Brain Immunity: Neurotrophins As Regulators Of Antigen-Presentation In Microglial Cells

... strongly increased. External application of the neurotransmitter glutamate was able to counteract this effect of action potential blockage. Experiments on microglial cells in isolated culture confirmed that these pharmacological interventions act by modulation of neuronal a...

Molecular Key To Heart Failure Development

...nergic receptors,making less of them available for neurotransmitter binding. In the new study, through genetic manipulation, Rockman and Drs. WalterKoch and Robert Lefkowitz at Duke created two strains of mice having differentbeta-adrenergic receptor system function. One group of these "transgenic" micehad more ...

Learning To Feel Chronic Pain

...orsal hornof the spinal cord, they discovered. The neurotransmitter serotonin activatessilent synapses in dorsal horn neurons. Inefficient, or silent synapses were proposed more than 20 years ago,but technical limitations prevented detailed studies of how and why they areactivated. Using whole cell patch-cla...

Move Over, Protein Kinase C, You've Got Company: Munc13-1 Is A Novel Diacylglycerol Target That Modulates Neurotransmitter Release

...messenger pathway that regulates the release of neurotransmitter from nerve cells (Neuron 21, 123-136, July 98).... membranous intracellular organelles that store neurotransmitter and release it upon stimulation by fusing with the cell membrane. The protein machinery that m...

Hallucinations In Schizophrenia: Genetic Findings

...man, C Mazzanti, A Clifton, A Breier, D Pickar The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated in the pathophysiology ofpsychosis. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays a critical role inregulation of serotoninergic function. A recently identified polymorphism inthe promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) p...

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