Tag: "neurotransmitter" at biology news
Hopkins' Young Investigators' Day winners shine in the spotlight
...has worked on ways the body controls the number of neurotransmitter
receptors at synapses. He's identified a protein that binds to glutamate receptors in the brain, changing them and strengthening their ability to communicate with other neurons a key part of learning and memory. The Helen B. Taussig Award was wo...
A neurogenetic approach to alcoholism
...ter understand the development of alcoholism. The neurotransmitter
serotonin is an important modulator or inhibitor o...hat is called the behavior inhibition system. The neurotransmitter
is very likely influenced by genetics, early stress experiences, as well as alcohol itself. Seroton...
Researchers use cloning technology to produce embryonic stem cell lines from adult mice
...ecome dopaminergic neurons, cells that produce the neurotransmitter
dopamine, which affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response and ability to experience pleasure and pain. Dopaminergic neurons are the cells that fail in sufferers of Parkinson's disease. In future experiments, dopaminergic neuro...
Abnormalities in stress hormone response among alcoholics
...ystem. Two, their systems are hypersensitive to a neurotransmitter
called serotonin, which is a key player in the bod...'s serotonin system. Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter
that influences most functions, including general motor activity, learning and memory, reproduction,...
Scientists switch memory recall on and off in fruit flies
...he flies' brain. Normally, the gene is involved in neurotransmitter
release. However, the mutant form of the gene enco...at works at low temperature (20C) but which blocks neurotransmitter
release at high temperature (30C). This property allowed the scientists to switch Shibire activity i...
New genetic risk factor for susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease
...d risk locus affects brain levels of dopamine, the neurotransmitter
used by neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. As a result, the new findings may have relevance for both of these common neurodegenerative disorders....
Gene therapy restores feeding behavior to starving mice
...A, a chemical precursor that is converted into the neurotransmitter
dopamine. These mice lack the motivation to feed, and die of starvation a few weeks after birth, unless they are hand-fed or injected daily with L-DOPA. The gene therapy restored feeding behavior in the mice. These dopamine-deficient mice have many ...
Research team unlocks secrets of the firefly flash
...that the flashes normally stimulated by adding the neurotransmitter
octopamine to firefly lanterns could be completely blocked by NO-absorbing chemicals. They then looked at microscopic structures inside the firefly lantern using special stains and antibodies to see where the NO-producing enzyme might be located. The...
Untangling the matrix of risk factors for alcoholism
...er types of behavioral and emotional problems. The neurotransmitter
serotonin is believed to regulate many behaviors a...genetically influenced through the regulation of a neurotransmitter
called serotonin (5-HT). "Serotonin's primary role appears to be that of an inhibitor," explained Ge...
Trial drugs for Huntingtons disease inconclusive in slowing disease
...cemide is a new investigational drug that blocks a neurotransmitter
in the brain (the NMDA glutamate receptor) which has long been suspected of contributing to the death of brain cells in Huntingtons disease. Coenzyme Q10 is a substance that occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in the function of mitochondri...
Gene transfer enhances pair bonding in monogamous voles
...xpress V1aR in monogamous voles. Vasopressin is a neurotransmitter
responsible for sending certain signals within the brain. The gene transfer caused the voles to overexpress V1aR, thereby increasing the density of vasopressin binding to the receptor. In addition to Dr. Young, the research group included Lauren J....
Protein tied to Alzheimers also plays key role in honeybees
...bees. AChE is an enzyme that breaks down a primary neurotransmitter
known as acetylcholine (ACh). Neurons use ACh to communicate with one another. In the human body, ACh signals muscle movement, and, in the brain, it is linked to learning and memory. In many Alzheimers patients, researchers have noted a loss of ne...
Controlled nerve growth factor aids brain cell transplant
... ChAT, an enzyme important in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine and a sign that transplanted cells are beginning to grow, connect and function. Their tests showed that most NGF from the microspheres remained in the regions of transplanted neo-tissue, although low levels were in the brain tissue im...
Scientists find new evidence for specific actions of alcohol in brain
...eptors in the brain are key sites of action of the neurotransmitter
glutamate, which increases the activity of brain n...dence for the interaction of alcohol with specific neurotransmitter
receptors of the living brain, Knapp said. The results will contribute to a clearer picture of how ...
Early detection device for exposure to chemical warfare agents being developed
...e, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter
in the body and brain involved in learning, memory and the neuromuscular system, Dr. Buccafusco said. In fact, muscle contractions occur because a nerve triggers a muscle and it does that by releasing acetylcholine. "The reason you can move, say, you...
Scientists find alcohol, drugs boost endorphins in key forebrain region
... regions drugs of abuse caused an elevation in the neurotransmitter
compound dopamine, he said. Such knowledge helps them pin down how abused substances affect humans and narrows the search for compounds that can block cravings without harming addicted people. The researchers administered alcohol, cocaine, amphetami...
Immunotherapy treatment shows dramatic results for rare neurological disorder
...thesis of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter
that controls muscle movement. Since GABA modulates the action of the excitatory muscular neurotransmitters, lower levels of circulating GABA allow the excitatory neurotransmitters to hijack communications between the brain and the motor system, ove...
Experimental appetite suppressant affects numerous brain messengers in mice
...lonyl CoA is the real trigger for these changes in neurotransmitter
levels. Malonyl CoA is normally transformed into a fatty acid by fatty acid synthase. When C75 blocks fatty acid synthase, levels of malonyl CoA rise. Lane says the hypothalamus may recognize increased levels of malonyl CoA as a signal that the...
Researchers closer to defining function of two proteins involved in neurotransmitter release
... defining the function of two proteins involved in neurotransmitter
release, which initiates communication between neu...m. The premise of our work is the understanding of neurotransmitter
release, which is a necessity for understanding brain function and how the brain works. The research...
Scientist: motion sickness drug scopolamine should be tested as new nerve agent treatment
...sky said. Nerve agents increase greatly a natural neurotransmitter
compound in the body called acetylcholine, he said...and the gastrointestinal tract becomes active. The neurotransmitter
is the functional opposite of adrenalin, which generally revs up the body, causing a fight response....
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