Tag: "neurotransmitters" at biology news

Molecule awakens and maintains neural connections

...signals that trigger nerve impulses in the form of neurotransmitters launched from neighboring neurons. Growth of new dendrites can therefore increase the connection between neurons. Changes in the strength of connections, known as long-term potentiation, allow the brain to create memories. In exploring the growth a...

Spontaneous mutation produces new MAO A/B knockout mouse

...el in which to address the specific roles of these neurotransmitters and their receptors in anxiety and stress-related ...scovered that the mice not only had high levels of neurotransmitters broken down by MAO B, as would be expected in mice lacking MAO B, but also had high levels of neuro...

Newly discovered protein may be key to muscular dystrophy

...n, dopamine and glutamate. The transporters remove neurotransmitters from the synapse, in effect providing an "off" switch to the neurotransmitter's potent effects. It was thought that normal enzymatic breakdown of acetylcholine was so effective that a transporter wasn't needed to clear excess acetylcholine from the s...

Protein key to trafficking in nerve terminals

... retrieval and formation of vesicles, allowing for neurotransmitters to be released in a continuous fashion. "Besi...c membrane. Rather, kiss and run vesicles release neurotransmitters through a pore in the membrane. The vesicles are then retrieved by pinching of the fusion pore at th...

Biologists discover nerve activity, not just genetics controls kinds of neurotransmitters produced

...ists had long believed that the different kinds of neurotransmitters used by different nerve cells were genetically pro...possibility that disorders caused by problems with neurotransmitters could be treated by modifying neural activity." In the study, the UCSD group increased or decreased...

Closing in on the cellular culprits of schizophrenia

...rm at the ends of nerve cells and contain chemical neurotransmitters such as glutamate. Neurons communicate with each other by releasing neurotransmitters from these vesicles. The researchers surmise that dysbindin affects the manufacture or breakdown of ...

Lack of specific brain protein causes marked deficits in learning, memory

...pril 7, 2004 A protein involved in the release of neurotransmitters in the brain is essential to learning and memory i...havior occur." Proteins involved in the release of neurotransmitters are known as presynaptic proteins. In the past, postsynaptic proteins, as opposed to presynaptic pro...

Genetics, alcohol sensitivity, and behavior

... were: Activity of the dopaminergic and GABAergic neurotransmitters appear to underlie the stimulant and sedative effe... methods used to assay the genetic material, or to neurotransmitters that interact with SLC6A4 and vary among different people and have yet to be measured." An investig...

Scripps Research receives $3 million anonymous donation

...ry adrenal stress response and is one of the major neurotransmitters responsible for activating sympathetic and behavioral responses to stressors. The CRF system seems to be central to alcoholism, and preliminary results in preclinical studies at Scripps Research have shown that compounds known as CRF antagonists can...

Scientists solve puzzle of how kinesin motor molecules walk or limp across cells

...as the workhorse of the cell, hauling chromosomes, neurotransmitters and other vital cargo along tiny molecular tracks ...e tiny sacs called vesicles, which are loaded with neurotransmitters that are needed for neurons to function, and moves them very long distances along microtubules." A m...

Brain's 'master molecule' produces same behavior in mice from three different psychostimulant drugs

...el Prize in Medicine or Physiology for his work on neurotransmitters and DARPP-32. "The research certainly indicates ne...tanding how DARPP-32 can process a wide variety of neurotransmitters that affect behavior, he says. "This master molecule seems to be involved in many behaviors, includi...

Small-molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin identified

...f these proteins effectively blocks the release of neurotransmitters that cause the muscle contractions necessary for respiration. The result is a flaccid paralysis that ultimately leads to suffocation and death. Because botulinum neurotoxins are capable of causing mass casualties, they are classified as biodefense...

Diet may improve cognition, slow aging, and help protect against cosmic radiation

... investigate the sex differences in the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that regulate appetite and the p...ecifically looked for changes in the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, as well as some of their metabolites, in various regions of ...

Study reveals patterns of gene activity in the mouse nervous system

...gives us a handle on many processes, such as where neurotransmitters are expressed in the brain." Among other possible benefits, this information could help investigators understand how neurological and psychiatric drugs work, she suggests. The project, which began in September 2000, uses a two-stage process to identi...

Researchers identify botox receptor

...aper. "We know how the toxins block the release of neurotransmitters from neurons, but we didn't know how they entered the neurons in the first place." Whether inhaled or injected, the deadly toxins head straight for neurons, or nerve cells. Via a binding receptor on the surface of these cells, the toxins are brought...

Researchers solve structure of key drug target

...b is to move molecules as diverse as nutrients and neurotransmitters across the cell membrane. Membrane transport proteins play such a vital role in the cell that their disruption is thought to be linked to numerous diseases, including depression, stroke and diabetes. In an article published in the August 1, 2003, iss...

Gene helps regulate longevity in flies, and perhaps humans

Dopamine and serotonin, two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, are intimately involved in muscle control, memory, sleep, and emotional behavior. They are also linked to illnesses such as Parkinson's disease and mood disorders. Now, regulation of longevity may be added to this list....

'Kiss-and-run' rules the inner lives of neurons

...n between nerve cells occurs when chemicals called neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, the junction betwee...lses in the neuron cause tiny vesicles loaded with neurotransmitters to move to the tip of the nerve terminal where they are released. In an article published in the Jun...

Gene enhances prefrontal function at a price

... parent. It codes for the enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine and comes in two common versions. One version, met, contains the amino acid methionine at a point in its chemical sequence where the other version, val, contains a valine. Depending on the mix of variants inherited, ...

Research shows cocaine 'reward' picture more complicated than scientists thought

...ers normally take up biological chemicals known as neurotransmitters such as dopamine and return them to neurons to be reprocessed," Dykstra said. "When transporters are blocked, however, dopamine will remain in the synapses of nerve cells." Using techniques pioneered by UNC's Dr. Oliver Smithies, Excellence professor...

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