Tag: "osu" at biology news

USC study links historical increases in life span to lower childhood exposure to infection

Starting in the mid-1850s, humans began living longer due, researchers believe, to improvements in living conditions, nutrition, income levels and medicine.... ...But two USC gerontologists have found an invisible cause that could have important implications for modern-day health care.... ...In a paper published in the Sept. 17 issue of the journal Science, Caleb Finch and Eileen Crimmins firm...

9/11 search-and-rescue dogs exhibit few effects from exposure to disaster sites

PHILADELPHIA The search-and-rescue dogs deployed following the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks have not suffered either immediate or short-term effects from exposure to the disaster sites, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine report. The findings, presented in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, should help...

Managing occupational exposures to potential bioterrorist agents

Laboratories working with biological threat agents must develop comprehensive programs in order to minimize the risk of occupational exposures, according to investigators at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID).... ...In an article published this month in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Janice M. Rusnak, M.D. and colleagues at USAMRIID...

Infant rats eagerly accept high concentrations of alcohol upon first exposure

... Early exposure to alcohol is believed to enhance the risk of alcohol use and/or abuse later in life. ... Research shows that infant rats are eager to accept high concentrations of alcohol upon first exposure.... This contrasts sharply with the standard rejection of alcohol by adult rats upon first exposure.... This finding may have implications for human infants.... ... ...Early exposure to...

Fifty years later, famous photo is in OSU's Pauling collection

CORVALLIS - Fifty years after James Watson and Francis Crick announced in the journal Nature that they had discovered the double helix structure of DNA, the photo that helped them unravel the mystery is finally getting its due recognition.... On Tuesday night (April 22), the PBS show NOVA debuts "Secret of Photo 51," which outlines the critical role that scientist Rosalind Franklin and her X-ray...

Early dexamethasone exposure has long-term neurodevelopment, neuroendocrine effects

(June 28, 2004) -- Bethesda, MD -- Any parent of a newborn with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) faces the possibility that their child will be diagnosed with severe respiratory distress syndrome, which results in ventilator and/or oxygen dependency, and subsequent onset of chronic lung disease. Until recently, early administration of a prolonged course of postnatal dexamethasone was recommended...

Mysterious beach closures may be linked to contaminated groundwater, study finds

Every summer, coastal communities from Maine to California are forced to temporarily close some of their most popular beaches because of unsafe levels of bacteria in the water. Typically, these sudden bacterial blooms disappear, only to return without warning later in the season. In many cases, health officials are unable to pinpoint the cause of the contamination, leading frustrated beachgoers t...

Transplant rejection averted by simple light exposure in Stanford animal study

STANFORD, Calif. - One of the unfortunate side effects of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation is that the newly implanted cells often stage an internal attack against the patient they're intended to help. Stanford University School of Medicine researchers now have a better grasp of this phenomenon, known as graft-versus-host disease, or GVHD, and have proposed a possible method of preventio...

OHSU researchers discover possible connection between infant hormone exposure, obesity

PORTLAND, Ore. Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University have discovered a link between exposure to the hormone leptin early in life, and brain formation that likely impacts weight regulation later in life. ......The research was conducted in mice at the OHSU Oregon National Primate Research Center. Results of the study are printed in the April 2 edition of the journal Science. ......"We...

Prenatal exposure to second-handsmoke greater for disadvantaged children, study finds

The effects of prenatal exposure to second-hand smoke on mental development are exacerbated in children who experience socioeconomic hardships, such as substandard housing and inadequate food and clothing, during the first two years of life, according to a new study funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, one of the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Environmental...

Deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure can be seen as early as infancy

... Most of the research on prenatal alcohol exposure has been conducted with children.... A new study uses heart-rate data collected from six-month-old babies to examine the effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.... Even as early as infancy, slower processing speeds and arousal-regulation problems are apparent.... ...Most of the research on arousal and attention deficits caused by pre...

Household activities release a cloud of dust, increasing exposure to particulate pollution

Ordinary household activities, from dusting to dancing, can increase your exposure to particulate pollution, according to a new study. Whether you are cutting the rug or just vacuuming it, you may be inhaling tiny dust particles that could be harmful to your health.... ...The report, which quantifies some common indoor activities, appears in the March 15 edition of , a peer-reviewed journal of t...

Viral immunosuppression: Not just a game of hide and go seek

When facing an immune response, viruses can either attempt to elude them or confront them. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in bringing forth the immune response by stimulating T cells. In the March 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Noemi Sevilla and colleagues from the Scripps Research Institute demonstrate that a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strain can supp...

Exposure to low-level magnetic fields causes DNA damage in rat brain cells, researchers find

Prolonged exposure to low-level magnetic fields, similar to those emitted by such common household devices as blow dryers, electric blankets and razors, can damage brain cell DNA, according to researchers in the University of Washington's Department of Bioengineering.... The scientists further found that the damage from brief exposures appears to build up over time.... ...The new study...

Models help estimate children's exposure to toxins

For almost 10 years, Stanford's Jim Leckie and his students have been successfully collecting immense amounts of data, writing original software and building sophisticated statistical models - all to begin to measure how children are exposed to chemicals in their environments. But Leckie, the C. L. Peck, Class of 1906 Professor in the School of Engineering, may have achieved his greatest success...

Studies suggest brain injury results from developmental exposure to alcohol, anesthesia, and lead

SEATTLE, WA--Neuroapoptosis--the death of brain cells--may help explain a wide range of developmental disturbances, including fetal alcohol syndrome and schizophrenia, according to researchers who presented a symposium today at the 2004 AAAS (Triple-A-S) Annual Meeting. AAAS is the American Association for the Advancement of Science.... ...At the AAAS event, Columbia University psychiatrist Ezra...

Pesticide exposure among agricultural workers varies by job task

Agricultural workers who perform thinning - removing young buds from orchard trees to increase the size of the remaining fruit - face a greater likelihood of pesticide exposure than other farm workers, according to a new findings from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center that appear in the February issue of ...The researchers found that workers who thinned orchards were more likely to have det...

Alcohol exposure in pre- and early post-natal stages may cause insulin resistance

DECEMBER 3, 2003 (Bethesda, MD) Perinatal factors (those occurring about five months before birth and one month after) have been implicated in the development of Type 2 diabetes and other disorders. Although the association of adverse events during pregnancy and glucose intolerance has been well documented, little is known about the effects of certain events that occur only during the postnatal...

Nicotine exposure in aging hearts

Bethesda, MD Large numbers of Americans still smoke cigarettes or use over-the-counter nicotine products such as patches and gums to satisfy their craving for nicotine. However, serious and sometime fatal cases of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been reported in patients who use a nicotine product. This is particularly true when the individual has smoked while using a nicotine patch. AF is the mos...

Saliva spits out information on chemical exposure

RICHLAND, Wash. -- Home testing of saliva to measure personal hormone levels is gaining popularity, with dozens of companies offering do-it-yourself, mail-in test kits. Battelle scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory envision a day when it may be nearly as easy to detect chemical exposure or even nerve gas poisoning -- simply by analyzing a victim's saliva....

NIH told regular and moderate exposure to sunlight is the key to preventing chronic disease

BETHESDA, MD (Oct. 9, 2003) The researcher who discovered the active form of Vitamin D, Dr. Michael F. Holick, a Professor of Medicine, Dermatology, Physiology and Biophysics at the Boston University School of Medicine, told the National Institutes of Health's symposium on "Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century" that the nation faces "severe Vitamin D deficiency" which, if not properly addres...

New study provides first linkage of fetal alcohol exposure and enlarged heart

August 25, 2003 (Bethesda, MD) -- Cardiac malformations exist in children with fetal alcohol syndrome and animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure, and an enlarged heart (cardiac hypertrophy) has been found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. The high incidence of heart defects indicates that alcoholism during pregnancy has to be considered as a serious and preventable cause of congenital...

Exposure to pollution before viral infection linked to more serious asthma attacks

Children with asthma at risk of viral infection from flu or the common cold could also be at an increased risk of severe asthma attacks if they have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide pollution from sources such as vehicle exhausts or gas cookers.... ...A link between exposure to the air pollutant nitrogen dioxide and respiratory disease has been suggested. Viral infections are the major cause of...

Short-term exposure to estrogen cuts fish fertility

RICHLAND, Wash. -- While several studies have focused on how estrogen from contraceptives may alter sex organs of juvenile fish, few studies have analyzed how exposure to estrogen affects adult fish as they make their way through rivers, lakes and streams to spawn. Now, a study by scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory suggests that when adult male fish ar...

Lab, OSU join in new microproducts institute

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oregon State University celebrated a "virtual groundbreaking" in Portland, Ore., recently for their new Microproducts Breakthrough Institute.... ...The institute will advance the science of microtechnology, provide educational opportunities through OSU and promote regional development by commercializing new products. "We're not working on technologies tha...

Five studies look at risks of differing particulate matter, including exposures on 9/11

In the hours and days following the September 11 World Trade Center disaster, rescue and clean-up workers continually breathed in air dense with particulate matter (PM) from the explosion and resulting fires. Little monitoring data are available for the first few days when exposures were greatest. While October rains helped mitigate the amount of airborne PM, precise information on PM compositi...

Prenatal exposure to nicotine increases risk of apnea in brains of newborn rats

University of Arizona researchers report new evidence that exposure to nicotine in the developing rat fetus enhances the function of GABAa receptors, a key component of brain cells that control breathing rhythm. The increased functional capacity of the GABAa receptors may make these newborns more likely to have episodes of apnea, in which breathing simply stops....... Zili Luo, MD, Ph.D., a post...

Native American artifacts pose pesticide exposure risk

An analysis of museum artifacts returned to California's Hoopa tribe through a federal repatriation act reveals traces of mercury and various pesticides, including DDT. Such chemicals commonly applied in the past by museums to defend their collections against pests could pose a risk to tribal members who may wear the objects during religious ceremonies, as well as to museum workers who handle t...

First step towards detecting exposure to biowarfare agents

BALTIMORE March 11, 2003 Army researchers are laying the groundwork for what one day could be a test to identify individuals who have been exposed to biological agents. They present their findings today at the American Society for Microbiology's Biodefense Research Meeting.... ..."Recent events have demonstrated that assessing exposure to a biological threat agent well in advance of onset of i...

Cell density determines extent of damage caused by cigarette smoke exposure

BETHESDA, MD First- or second-hand exposure to cigarettes can lead to a variety of diseases, including tissue destruction found in pulmonary emphysema and osteoporosis. Also included among cigarette smoking-induced diseases are disorders in which an excessive deposition of fibrotic scar occurs, such as with atherosclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. ...... Collagen is the major protein o...

Versatile immunosuppressant drug may have new role in radiotherapy for cancer

Frankfurt, Germany: US researchers have discovered that rapamycin[1], a drug developed as an ...immunosuppressant and now being used in cardiovascular stents[2] and also being tested as a chemotherapy agent to prevent tumour cell proliferation, may have yet another role enhancing the effectiveness of radiotherapy for cancer patients....... Research in mice at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnes...

Polluted beach closures influenced by full moons and sunlight, surfer-engineer discovers

Nothing will ruin a day at the beach like a sign in the sand that reads, ''Warning: Contaminated Water. Unsafe for Swimming or Contact.''...... According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, there were more than 13,000 closures and advisories at ocean and freshwater beaches in the United States in 2001 - the vast majority prompted by lab tests showing elevated levels of fecal bacteria in the...

OSU genetics expert wins award for lifetime achievement

... ...COLUMBUS, Ohio Dr. Albert de la Chapelle, an Ohio State University scientist who has spent 40 years studying the labyrinthine complexity of human genetics, has won the 2002 William Allan Award, the highest honor bestowed by the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG). De la Chapelle, director of the Human Cancer Genetics Program in The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center...

Sex-based differences in environmental exposures and health

Research efforts are beginning to show that environmental exposures can affect women and men differently. In some cases, differences are due to the fact that one sex has more exposure to a toxin than the other. In many cases, however, it is because men and women's bodies respond differently to a given toxin. ... ...Environmental exposures can have serious consequences including reproductive disor...

OSU studies breast cancer risk and beef consumption

COLUMBUS, Ohio Scientists concerned that a growth promoter widely used in the U.S. cattle industry may increase the risk of breast cancer are launching the first-ever study comparing beef consumption with elevated levels of zeranol in women's blood, urine and breast tissue. ..."We want our patients to know that we have no evidence suggesting that eating beef in any amount is dangerous," says Dr....

Prenatal alcohol exposure can damage both information processing and response capabilities

... Scientists use reaction time to measure neurological deficits related to prenatal alcohol exposure.... One signal and response is called simple reaction time (SRT). ... Two or more signals and responses are called choice reaction time (CRT). ... Children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol, yet do not have Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, have slower information processing and motor responses to C...

16th Annual Depression Symposium features Pulitzer Prize-winning author, world-renowned neurosurgeon

Author William Styron and pediatric neurosurgeon Benjamin Carson, M.D., will be featured speakers at the annual symposium sponsored by the Johns Hopkins Affective Disorders Clinic and DRADA, the Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association.... ...The symposium date is Wednesday, April 24, with talks from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. in Hopkins' Turner Auditorium.... ...Styron will return to the sym...

Discovery Channel special watches OSU chimps learn to read

... ... ......COLUMBUS, Ohio - After a little more than three years' effort,... psychologists at Ohio State University have taught a pair of... young chimpanzees to "read" the names of nearly a dozen... objects, to recognize the animals' own printed names and the... names of tools they need to acquire their favorit...

Hiroshima porcelain pieces provide insight into exposure levels

Scientists are still studying the after-effects of the nuclear disaster caused by an atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The amount of neutron fluence, for example, has been calculated from the site to establish what might be a safe level of exposure for humans. (Neutron fluence is the number of neutrons from the blast found per square centimeter.) The advent of nuclear accidents...

Sunlight, PCB exposure enhance skin cancer chances

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Sunlight and PCB exposure can hit you where you least expect it. The combination enhances the development of non-melanoma skin cancer on parts of the body not directly exposed to the sun, according to a University of Illinois study.... Preliminary results of the research, which used the hairless mouse model of humans with non-malignant skin cancer, were presented today (March 2...
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