Tag: "proportional" at biology news

Merging Physics And Neuroscience: First Evidence Of Self-Organized Criticality In Brain Networks

...or time duration observed within a timeinterval is proportional to that size or duration raised to aspecific exponent. Adherence to such a power law is the signatureof self-organized criticality. To simulate the brain network under study, Jung createdcomputer models composed of between 10,000 and one million"ex...

Butterfly Wings, Beetle Horns Teach Biologists Basic Lesson In Development's Laws

...gulatory mechanisms that manage size regulationand proportional regulation among body parts. "We hope that this paper will demonstrate that these are approachablesystems, that the questions are still out there and are interesting andimportant." Thus, the Duke biologists plan further experiments...

Virginia Tech Research Group Presents Improved Dental Materials

... thereacting material. The heat generation rate is proportional to the reactionrate," Shultz says. "Nazan could therefore calculate the reaction rate at anychosen time and the total amount of reaction that occurred in a given timeperiod. Variation of photoiniator amount, light intensity and temperatureproduced a ...

Alcohol Consumption, Resistance To Its Effects Related To Levels Of Neurotransmitter, Say UW Researchers

...."Alcohol consumption and resistance are inversely proportional to concentrationsof NPY in the brain. Together, these data indicate that in rodents there is arelationship between NPY levels and the willingness to voluntarily consumealcohol." The researchers cautioned that while their results with mice ...

Exotic Species, Migratory Birds, Sea Level Rise, Wetlands, And Contaminants...USGS Scientists Discuss Innovative Chesapeake Bay Restoration Studies

... the exposure to metal by swans should be directly proportional to the metal concentration in the sediments, making risk assessments simpler and more reliable. To begin validating this approach, forty-two mute swans were collected from unpolluted portions of central Chesapeake Bay in spring 1995, and their intest...

Increasing Carbon Dioxide Threatens Tropical Coral Reefs

...osphere, the tropical sea surface takes it up at a proportional rate.Scientists have so far focused on CO2 storage in the ocean. This is oneof the first studies to examine how CO2 increases may affect thechemistry and biology of ocean ecosystems. As CO2 dissolves, it produces an acid that lowers the seawater pH. ...

Physicists Find Simple Solution To Great-And-Small Mystery

... amountof water flowing in the water pipes must be proportional to the number of homesin the system, or L to the power of D. "However, an additional factor of L isnecessary to account for the water filling the pipes throughout the minimumdistance necessary to reach the most remote home, and this leads to the pow...

Scientists identify molecular source of friction

...onal force needed to slide one body over anotheris proportional to the load that presses them together and is also independentof the areas of the surfaces. Scientists have argued, however, about therelative importance of surface roughness, chemistry and other factors that mightcontribute to friction. Simple theo...

Millennium and the Whitehead Institute identify novel protein important in fat absorption

...in a mouse enterocyte cell-culture modelproduced a proportional reduction in the uptake of these fatty acid molecules. "The transport of fatty acids from the intestines into the body is a key stepin the absorption and metabolism of dietary fat and its conversion to body fat,"said Lou Tartaglia, Ph.D., senior dir...

Rate of sound impulses markedly affects ability to perceive volume

...ne in" to the volume of echoes that is known to be proportional to the target size. By doing so, they can obtain a higher resolution of target size, which is useful for target discrimination. "We are getting the idea that the hearing system is dynamic and under active control," Feng said. "With this new revelat...

Colorado State and international scientists say loss in biodiversity by year 2100 could be consequence of global changes

...d ecosystems will probably experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because all five factors affect them. Northern temperate ecosystems will likely experience the least biodiversity change, primarily because they've already been so extensively affected by major land-use change. The most land-us...

Finding the right recipe: Researchers tailor magnetic nanoparticles for medical treatment & diagnosis

...res a certain amount of energy to climb over -- is proportional to the size of the particle as well as magnetic interactions. Zhang and his team have learned to control this energy barrier through chemical means. Another critical property is the size. Magnetic nanoparticles for in-vivo biomedical ...

Measuring alcohol levels in breath, blood and now the brain

... it is assumed that brain alcohol concentration is proportional to the concentration of water in the brain. That is, the distribution of alcohol depends solely on the concentration of water in brain tissue. White matter is about 70 percent water, and gray matter about 85 percent water. "Therefore," he expla...

Aging alters sleep and hormone levels sooner than expected

...s in deep sleep. Increasing deep sleep triggers a proportional increase in growth hormone secretion. The second stage of of deterioration of sleep due to aging occurs after age 50, during the transition from mid-life to late life. It includes decreased total sleep -- which declines by about 27 minutes per deca...

Brain size in premature infants significantly smaller than full-term babies

...nitudes of the abnormalities in fact were directly proportional to how early the children were born, and they were strongly associated with IQ of the children at age eight years." The shortest gestation period for the children was 26 weeks. The children born prematurely were followed since birth as a component ...

Waddling is a good way to make up for short legs - at least for penguins, say UC Berkeley researchers

...hat running animals use energy at a rate inversely proportional to the time the foot applies force to the ground during each stride. Short-legged animals are in contact with the ground for a shorter time than long-legged animals running at the same speed, so their muscles must exert their force more quickly. Beca...

Atmospheric chemistry key to global and local air pollution

...cals so that they fluoresce. The hydroxyl count is proportional to this fluorescence. The researchers count hydroperoxyl radicals by releasing nitrogen oxide that rapidly reacts with hydroperoxyl to form the hydroxyl radical. They then count the hydroxyl and subtract the hydroxyl that was there before the nitric ...

For the first time, scientists uncover how breast cancer metastasizes

... a greater influx of tumor cells-and theinflux was proportional to the number of lymphatic vessels in the primary tumor. "What this suggests is that the lung metastases may also have occurredthrough the lymphatic system-they may be going to the lymph nodes and spreadingfrom there," says Detmar. He and Skobe pla...

Scientific theory of marine reserves to be released

...that the relative impacts of reserves, such as the proportional differences in density or biomass, are independent of reserve size, suggesting that the effects of marine reserves increase directly rather than proportionally with the size of a reserve. However, he notes that equal relative differences in biolo...

How fat kills heart cells

...t ACS1 transgenic lines die prematurely, at a rate proportional to the level of enzyme overexpression. In these animals, cardiac myocytes die through apoptosis and necrosis, and those cells with with large lipid inclusions are lost preferentially. Interestingly, ceramide, a lipid mediator of apoptosis, is one of ...

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