Tag: "stimulates" at biology news

Retroviral protein triggers proliferation of immune cells

... to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), a substance that stimulates the growth and proliferation of immune cells known as T lymphocytes, or T cells, which are the virus's chief target. The study was published in the Oct. 15 issue of the Journal of Virology. "Our findings help explain why lymphocytes divide and prolif...

Re-engineered blood vessels show promise for bypass surgery, grafts, UMHS researchers find

...ochamber that contracts like a heart. The pressure stimulates the endothelial cells into the chamber, helping new cells to grow and take root. U-M is applying for a patent for this technique and is in negotiations with a company that wishes to use the technology commercially. The study was funded by the Plastic...

Fruits offer powerful protection from skin cancer

...led receptor (the Wnt signal lead receptor). This stimulates the cytoplasmic protein, disheveled (Dvl), one of the multi-module proteins working in the pathway. As a result, accumulated catenins, or protein mutations, situate themselves in the nucleus of the cell. This translocation leads to the transcriptio...

Role in Type 1 diabetes provides clue for researchers who discovered 'obesity gene'

...ion of a neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus that stimulates or suppresses appetite. Lermark says that several years ago, he and his colleagues in Sweden found that some obese people had antibodies to GAD65. This finding remained unexplained, but sparked Froguel's interest when he was searching chromosome 10 f...

JCI Table of Contents, November 3, 2003

...oxin in mice causes increased oxidative stress and stimulates cardiac hypertrophy via redox-sensitive mechanisms when the animal is at rest and also when subjected to pressure overload. Therefore, both thioredoxin and its downstream target proteins may be an important therapeutic focus for the treatment of card...

GAD2 as a candidate gene for obesity

...ion of a neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus that stimulates appetite, and is therefore an interesting candidate. Screening genomic data on 575 obese subjects and 646 controls for different GAD2 alleles, Froguel and colleagues identified one group of alleles as "protective" against obesity and another as incr...

Age-related decrease in physical ability may be in the genes

... and development, and in prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production and also helps maintain the immune system. Growth hormone gene expression was nearly 10 times higher in the young mouse cerebellum, while prolactin gene expression was nearly 15 times higher in young mice. "We don't know what role eit...

Genetics mutations resulting in delayed puberty are focus of MCG study

...ns releasing gonadotropin releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary gland to make follicle stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH. FSH and LH, in turn, prompt the ovaries to produce estrogen and eggs and the testes to produce testosterone and sperm. "When patients present to us with delay...

Growth hormone activates gene involved in healing damaged tissue

...ggested that growth hormone therapy in elderly men stimulates cells to divide," said Costa, leading to increases in muscle mass and skin thickness and greater bone density in the spine, while decreasing body fat. "We wanted to find out how the hormone worked at a molecular level." When aged mice whose livers ha...

A human hormone, combined with a full stomach, offers clues for understanding our food intake

...proteins are present, and reduces food intake. CCK stimulates enzyme secretion in the pancreas. The process eventually leads to inhibiting gastric emptying of the stomach's foods, thereby causing gastric distension. It has been suggested that increased gastric distension, induced by slowing of gastric emptying...

Scientists develop a novel strategy to help prevent transplant rejection

... the donor two weeks in advance of transplantation stimulates an immune response and significantly increases transplant acceptance from 20 to up to 80 days. Professor Maggie Dallman of Imperial's Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, and senior author of the paper, said: "Today, even with extensive e...

JCI table of contents, December 15 2003

...e tumor development by secreting Kit ligand, which stimulates the migration of mast cells and neurofibroma formation. In an accompanying commentary, David Viskochil from the University of Utah explores the mechanisms of these cellular interactions and suggests that "the development of medical treatment targe...

MIT helps unlock life-extending secrets of calorie restriction

...of chemical reactions in the cell. In cells, NADH stimulates the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a compound that represents chemical energy in cells. The more NADH a cell has, the more stored energy it has. It remains to be seen whether these findings about yeast and NADH will relate to the extensi...

JCI table of contents, January 2, 2004

...stroke in the context of diabetes. TITLE: Estrogen stimulates microglia and brain recovery from hypoxia-ischemia in normoglycemic but not diabetic female mice AUTHOR CONTACT: Susan J. Vannucci Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New Y...

Activation of receptor ups development of precancerous intestinal polyps

...elta. "These results argue that PPAR-delta stimulates intestinal adenoma development and size by activating antiapoptotic pathways in intestinal epithelial cells," the researchers write. Because the cells avoid cell death, they have a survival advantage, DuBois further explained, suggesting that PPAR-de...

Kidney injury's harmful effects on bones blocked in mice

...ed that the damage either suppresses a factor that stimulates production of renewed bone or increases production of a factor that inhibits bone renewal. The uniqueness of BMP-7, a protein whose gene scientists have identified in both mice and humans, moved it to the top of his list of suspects. "Among the facto...

USGS February science picks

...m has too much nitrogen and other nutrients, which stimulates algal blooms that affect water quality and block sunlight from reaching underwater grasses. The water-quality criteria proposed by the Chesapeake Bay Program probably will not be met by the goal date of 2010 because of the lag time between implementi...

Small amounts of alcohol or anesthetics may damage the developing brain

...ory neurotransmission. The excitatory system that stimulates nerve cells is what scientists call the NMDA glutamate transmitter system. In 1998, Olney and colleague Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of anesthesiology at the University of Virginia, discovered that the drug nitrous oxide...

Athletics, genetic enhancement and ethics

...oietin (EPO), the naturally occurring hormone that stimulates the body to produce more red blood cells, be distinguished from allowed practices such as "train-low-and-rest-high" regimens? What are the ethical reasons from prohibiting some endurance enhancement techniques and allowing others? How should distinct...

JCI table of contents, 16 February 2004

...The authors demonstrate the mechanism by which HDL stimulates NO release, inducing vessels to relax and blood pressure to be lowered. In an accompanying commentary, Philip Shaul and Chieko Mineo from the University of Texas state that "with greater understanding in hand regarding both the underlying mechanisms ...

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