Tag: "strands" at biology news

Cigarette smoke causes breaks in DNA and defects to a cell's chromosomes, Pitt study finds

...o about 1/25 of a cigarette caused breaks to both strands of DNA and compromised the integrity of the cell's chromosomes. Cigarette smoke contains some 5,000 organic compounds, including chemicals known to cause cancers. While the researchers did not expose cells to actual puffs of smoke, the cigarette smo...

DNA lends scientists a hand, revealing new chemical reactions

...ns of different small organic molecules onto short strands of DNA, which then gives the reactants the opportu...olecules are attached to, and "encoded" by, single strands of approximately a dozen DNA bases; when two strands with complementary sequences spontaneously stic...

Spun from bone

...o a key protein in enamel that molds crystals into strands thousands of times longer and much stronger than t...forcing the crystals to elongate into thin, weaved strands that endow enamel with the strength of steel. The discovery is a milestone for those who would wish...

Popular Science announces Third Annual 'Brilliant 10'

... molecules, relying on the natural tendency of DNA strands to pair together like a zipper. Capitalizing on this, Liu is able to program the outcome of chemical reactions--before combining his raw materials, he attached each to a strand of DNA, attaching the ingredients he wants to react to complementary bits...

Israeli scientists reveal the plan of a key cellular machine

...ell nucleus. A large complex of proteins and short strands of RNA, the spliceosome distinguishes the beginnin...een the modules without harming the integral short strands of RNA that are essential to the splicing process, so they could study them individually. Split-seco...

Study by Israeli scientists provides insight on DNA code

...ell nucleus. A large complex of proteins and short strands of RNA, the spliceosome distinguishes the beginnin...een the modules without harming the integral short strands of RNA that are essential to the splicing process, so they could study them individually. Split-seco...

How an insidious mutation fools DNA replication

...d molecule shaped like a spiral staircase. The two strands of the spiral are linked by sequences of molecular...cess of replicating DNA, which begins when the two strands unzip. A protein enzyme called DNA polymerase then works its way along one "template" strand adding ...

Trojan Horses, xenon imaging and remote controlled genes

...archers are caging molecules xenon, gene-blocking strands of antisense DNA and even therapeutics to facilitate their entry into cells and enable researchers to observe nature's biochemical clockwork. Ivan Dmochowski, an assistant professor in Penn's Department of Chemistry, details the methods that his l...

No longer just for biology, RNA can now be built into 3-D arrays

...ated novel arrays. By mixing the custom-made RNA strands with other substances, such as magnesium chloride, the researchers were able to get the strands to join into 3-D shapes. In 1987, Guo discovered that a bacteria-infecting virus possesses a biomol...

Scientists reinvent DNA as template to produce organic molecules

...By piggybacking small organic molecules onto short strands of DNA, chemists at Harvard University have develo...taining 10 DNA bases (A, C, G, or T). When two DNA strands with complementary sequences (A matches T, G matches C) spontaneously bond together, their associate...

Research reveals role of gene in infertility

...own as a synaptonemal complex, which links the two strands together. Ma's research is the first to provide d...f the whole complex of proteins that holds the two strands close to one another." Many of the findings of the Ma's team's research are revealed is its exquisit...

Rutgers chemist uses NMR to elucidate protein-DNA interaction

... to determine how proteins slide along the lengthy strands forming the helix structure of DNA until they reac...Structurally, DNA is a double helix made up of two strands of genetic material spiraled around each other. Each strand contains a sequence of bases (also calle...

A better way to copy DNA

...into single strands) and synthesis (copying single strands to create new double-stranded DNA). HDA instead mimics nature's method of replicating DNA by using a helicase enzyme to denature the DNA. As a result, the entire HDA reaction can be performed at one temperature that is optimized for synthesis, elimin...

Structure solved at Scripps shows how one human protein reduces potency of chemotherapy

...formation, is composed of two intertwining helical strands that bind to each other through base pairing. Each strand is composed of four types of DNA bases (A, G, C, and T) attached to one another through a sugar-phosphate backbone. The other strand in the pair has a complementary sequence of bases. Alkylat...

USC researcher named General Motors Cancer Research Scholar

...changes in the structure of chromatin the gnarled strands of protein and DNA found in a cell's nucleus contribute to the development and progression of sporadic breast cancers. (Sporadic breast cancers are those that are not directly associated with a specific genetic mutation.) Rice's work at the Keck Sc...

Scientists discover new role for tiny RNA in plant development

...rld are racing to find and study microRNAs -- tiny strands of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that regulate gene expression in plants and animals. It's believed that hundreds of microRNAs exist in each species of plant and animal, but the function of only a few is understood. According to a new study by biologists at...

Nanosphere announces genetic detection advance in Nature Biotechnology

...e's technology, gold nanoparticles are attached to strands of nucleotides complementary to targets of interest, and when a target nucleic acid or protein is present, the nanoparticle probes latch on to the match and provide a strong optical signal indicating the target has been found. The unique hybridizatio...

Shortened chromosomes linked to early stages of cancer development

...A is first denatured, a process that separates the strands within the DNA's double helix structure. The Hopkins scientists then added a fluorescent probe specific for telomere regions. As the DNA re-forms into a double helix, it blends with the fluorescent molecules, enabling scientists to examine specific...

Findings redefine mechanism of action of RNA helicase enzymes

...d proteins. In order to carry out its functions, strands of RNA molecules will bind with other RNA molecules, making double-stranded RNA, or will bind with proteins, making RNA-protein complexes, or RNPs. Wherever RNA occurs in the cell, ubiquitous RNA helicase enzymes are responsible for rearrangements ...

Discovery helps explain how cells package DNA

...discovered a protein that helps cells package long strands of DNA into a tight ball that fits into the nucleus during cell division. The study, done in yeast, should help researchers better understand how human cells cram more than 7 feet of DNA--the total length of the genetic material in our 46 chromosomes...

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