Tag: "strands" at biology news
Biological computer diagnoses cancer and produces drug in a test tube
...wing a correct diagnosis, to release the short DNA strands
designed to kill cancer cells. Similarly, they were able to identify, in the test tube, the signs of one form of lung cancer. One day in the future, they hope to create a "doctor in a cell", which will be able to operate inside a living body, spot di...
Genome-wide screen reveals new tricks of old genes
...e involved in double-checking whether newly formed strands
of DNA matched the cell's original genetic material and calling in "repairmen" as needed (a process called the "S-phase checkpoint"). The other two genes are part of the machinery previously known to help move the two sets of chromosomes to opposite ...
Rewriting textbooks on DNA crossover
... textbook explanation has been that the linked DNA strands
formstructures called Holliday junctions that on paper can be processedin two different ways to create either a crossover or non-crossover.This model implies that the decision is made at a very late step,Hunter said. Working in the brewer's yeast ...
St. Jude researchers create image of enzyme that orchestrates natural genetic engineering
...rk. A stalled replication fork occurs when the two strands
of a chromosome's double-stranded DNA fail to sepa...ting replication. During RDR, the ends of the free strands
at the fork drift into the DNA of another chromosome, like the free arm of one person pushing into t...
Controlling biomolecules with magnetic 'tweezers'
..., twist and uncoil individual biomolecules such as strands
of DNA. The device should help scientists study folding patterns and other biochemical details important in medical, forensic and other research areas. The new NIST device works like drawing toys that use a magnetized stylus to pick up and drag magne...
Carnegie Mellon U. develops microgel to recover enzymes for manufacturing, research assays
... microgel particles. For each particle, single DNA strands
were used to create a three-way junction (TWJ) tha...ttached irreversibly to the tips of up to four PNA strands
in a way that led to cross-linking of different TWJs, resulting in the microgel. At room temperature...
Microbe's trick provides a template for willowy crystals
...als formed?" In nature, the crystals are formed in strands
of a polymer that grow from the cell membranes of the microbes, which are more than likely metabolizing iron from the mine environment. "We are dealing with microbes that probably oxidize ferrous iron and reduce oxygen," says Banfield. "The product,...
DNA chip will catch beefed up chicken
...cies (see Table) arranged into discrete zones. DNA strands
from the food sample are transcribed into RNA and tagged with fluorescent chemicals. These are then washed over the chip. Any matching sequences stick together, so the pattern of fluorescent zones read by a laser scanner reveals which species are pr...
Computer method identifies potentially active enzymes
... for pair clashes." To function properly, protein strands
need to fold in a specific way so that certain domains are next to or aligned with other domains. Both forms of enzymes studies here have similar structure and function, however, clashes occur in hybrids when they retain fragments from original enzym...
Structure solved by Scripps scientists shows one way that body controls gene expression
...to the mRNA. Following the same principle that two strands
of DNA use to bind to each other, the TIS11d protein binds to the mRNA by forming hydrogen bonds with the Watson-Crick edges of the mRNA. "It was remarkable to see how these tiny structures [work]," says Wright. The resea...
RNA inner workings partly unveiled in Stanford study
...lp slow down the transcription process so that the strands
of DNA and newly made RNA can separate properly. ...vealed for the first time in this paper." How the strands
of RNA and DNA are pushed apart has a simple physical explanation: the RNA polymerase inserts itself...
'Kissing' RNA and HIV-1: Unraveling the details
...ses form and mature into infectious particles, two strands
of RNA interact through a transient structure called a "molecular kiss." This structure is then packaged into new virus particles, which undergo further maturation after release from the infected cell. CARB scientists found that specific sites in the...
Purdue biologists expose the inner workings of viral machine
...formation within cells. "If a reovirus exposed its strands
of RNA to a cell's cytoplasm directly, the cell's ...self into a virus-producing factory." These single strands
of RNA are assembled within the virus in part by a protein molecule called lambda-3 that operates so...
New way to lock DNA-slicing enzyme onto chromosomes could lead to novel anti-cancer drugs
...unwind the DNA of chromosomes and separate the two strands
making up a giant molecule. This activity permits the cell to transcribe (decode) specific genes or to make a copy of the entire chromosome. Duplication of chromosomes is critical to the process called mitosis, or cell division. After the cell divide...
Emerging frontiers genomics grant for blue-green bacteria
...es a lot," Meeks said. Nostoc grows in gelatinous strands
in freshwater and a wide range of land habitats. It can photosynthesize, using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to feed itself, and can fix nitrogen into a usable form. To do that, some regular Nostoc cells switch themselves into a different type o...
Mustard-root map breaks new ground tracking gene expression
...as the template, the transcription process creates strands
of RNA, molecules that control the building of proteins and serve as catalysts. A network of various biochemical factors, such as signaling hormones, can affect this process.) According to Joanne Tornow, a program director in NSF's Division of Molec...
Ultra-thin coating traps DNA on a leash
...s to glass and the other side that grabs on to DNA strands
to solve this problem. "The coating is a single m...r end with three functional amine groups where DNA strands
can interact and attach. Retention of DNA is more than 50 percent better than found on DNA microarr...
UC Riverside researchers publish paper on botulism detection system
...ith the neurotoxin, which cuts through the protein strands
connecting the two, much like a fish would cut through a fishing line. The bead's separation causes the cantilever to vibrate, announcing the neurotoxin's presence. While effective, the process is not yet ready for practical application. "Right now ...
Nanotech instruments allow first direct observations of RNA 'proofreading'
...e versatile enzyme that copies genes from DNA onto strands
of RNA, which then serve as templates for all of the proteins that make life possible. Emerson's comment notwithstanding, RNAP makes plenty of mistakes but also proofreads and corrects them before they have a chance to create abnormal proteins. The e...
New technology will speed genome sequencing
...llary sequencers. Each lane can accommodate longer strands
of DNA: about 850 bases (the nucleic acids found in DNA, abbreviated by the letters A, C, T or G), compared to the current 550 bases per lane. It takes about 45 minutes to read the DNA from one of the BioMEMS' 768 lanes. The machine has two chips; on...
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