Tag: "switch" at biology news
New data suggest anakinra may accelerate reduction in joint destruction and improve quality of life for rheumatoid arthritis patients
...nt for one year was 2.1, compared with 3.8 for the switch
group (p=0.015). Significant improvement among the anakinra-treated was seen both in the individual dose groups and the erosive damage and joint space narrowing subscales. In an effort to quantify the bone protective qualities of anakinra using an ...
UCSF researchers reveal a fundamental decision-making unit of cells
...ard. The scientists found that when the decision switch
is "off" - that is, when instructions for adding a...ent. "It's a sophisticated, well-designed two-way switch
that can monitor complex conditions," marvels Lim. He says the model probably applies to many cell d...
Double headed hydra
...secondary head. That HEADY acts as a developmental switch
to pattern the apical-basal axis of Hydra provides the first insight into how initial asymmetry is specified in lower metazoan animals. Furthermore, it supports the view that peptides have played a key role as developmental signals in metazoan evolut...
The silence of the clones: new link between DNA replication and 'silent' chromosome architecture
...e to transcriptional activators, the proteins that switch
genes on. Active regions of DNA adopt alternate chromatin structures that are generally more accessible to transcriptional activators . Now, Bruce Stillman and his colleagues at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have demonstrated how a set of proteins w...
How much of the world do we really see?
...imons. He points out that those who did notice the switch
were students of about the same age as the "strangers". Being in the same social group, he and Levin speculated, they would be more inclined to take in individual details, whereas older subjects might categorise the stranger as "student" and leave it...
New discovery: 'footprint' shows master switch simultaneously controls plants' disease defenses
...e we found could be a binding site for a universal switch
for the immune system among many plant species," s...w we can use the footprint to find the controlling switch
and eventually engineer it to create a plant that would respond better or more quickly to attack by ...
...upon nutrient availability, many fungi are able to switch
between two different morphological forms: a unice...nder nitrogen-poor conditions, each of these fungi switch
to filament form and thus become pathogenic. This physiological response to nutrient availability ha...
Food and the circadian clock
...In turn, these presumably remote-controlled clocks switch
on or off the expression of food processing enzymes. To investigate this hierarchy, Dr. Schibler's group used mice, animals that are typically active at night. If the mice experienced a regular day / night lighting scheme and were offered food around...
Science and Amersham Pharmacia Biotech grand prize: "jumping DNA" discovery explains immune system evolution
...using bacteria were rendered harmless in mice. The switch
is found in pathogenic microbes responsible for many of the world's worst killers, including bubonic plague, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever. New vaccines and antibiotics may ultimately result from the research, completed at a time when drug-re...
Simple rules predict the outcome of predator-prey struggles
...mple and general equations can explain the complex switch
from constant population sizes to extreme cycles." The test was simple enough: Day after day for more than 14 weeks, single-celled green algae ( Chlorella vulgaris ) and the microscopic animals that eat them (planktonic rotifers, Brachinus calyci...
Crystal structure of protein interaction could lead to new drugs against cancer
...gnancies." Here, the 'on' position of the light switch
occurs when the G protein is bound to the small mo..."This structure is essentially the G protein light switch
half way between 'on' and 'off.' Now the question is, can we turn the light switch, or G protein, 'o...
Why some people just can't seem to pay attention
... or distractibility (the tendency to involuntarily switch
attention to new stimuli in the environment) are q... "is probably to initiate an involuntary attention switch
toward a new event in one's environment to evaluate its potential relevance. It could, for example,...
DNA arrays decipher genome's master switches
...e circuitrydirectly controlled by any given master switch
has been a painstakingly long and tedious process, involving years of biochemical and molecular experiments. The new technique reported in Science provides a way to get the data in a global fashion and will allow researchers to do in a week what woul...
Three genetic steps convert normal mammary cells into breast cancer cells
...ific genetic alterations that are required for the switch
from a normal cell to a tumor cell. Identification of the minimal genetic requirements of tumorigenesis will help to understand the mechanisms underlying the uncontrolled and destructive growth behavior of cancer. The genes chosen for use in this ex...
Two bees or not two bees? Researchers take first look at the genetic differences between queen and worker honeybees
... the genes characteristic of bipotential larva and switch
on a distinct set of caste-related genes, including genes responsible for metabolism and respiration. Worker bees, they found, continued to express more of the genes typical of the juvenile larva. This difference in gene expression is thought to lead...
Atomic structure identified for gene-regulating molecule: Broad implications for cancers, autoimmunity, developmental disorders
...molecular structure for this widely occurring gene switch
begins to help us explain why mutations in this molecule can lead to cancers and many other diseases," says Wistar professor Frank J. Rauscher III, Ph.D., a co-corresponding author on the study and deputy director of the Cancer Center at Wistar. "Our...
Study sheds new light on Lyme disease transmission
...others that were expressed in the host, and that a switch
occurred en route from the tick to the host. This paper shows us that things are a lot more complicated," said Aravinda M. de Silva, PhD, assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of ...
Growing neurons use silencing mechanism to avoid disastrous tug-of-war
March 9, 2001 —Just as traffic signals switch
off the red light when the green light comes on, t...hose inhibitory factors. But if the repellents can switch
off the attractants, it might be necessary to try either to block the repellents or to affect the ...
Studies show powerful natural anti-cancer system exists
...tch," says Kensler. The scientists knocked out the switch
a protein called Nrf2 in genetically engineered mice and saw the activity of phase II enzymes drop dramatically compared with mice whose "switch gene" was intact. When they exposed both the knockout mice and normal mice to benzpyrene, a potent ca...
UCSF studies illuminate possible new landscape for targeting cancer
...ease or another angiogenic factor must kick in and switch
on angiogenesis," says Bergers. Moreover, while t...eventive agents that target the initial angiogenic switch
in quiescent normal vasculature found in pre-malignant lesions or in normal tissue beds freshly seed...
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