Tag: "switches" at biology news

First gene therapy to calm pigs' out-of-sync hearts

...e, called an inhibitory G protein gene, because it switches on in pacemaking tissue whenever the nervous system signals for a slowing of the heart rate. The gene makes a protein that's the biological equivalent of a monkey wrench, blocking a step in an adrenalin-triggered set of reactions that normally speed...

DNA arrays decipher genome's master switches

...technique that can decipher the function of master switches in a cell by identifying the circuit, or the set o...entify the circuits controlled by two known master switches in yeast. In addition, the technique allows researchers to unravel in a week what takes years to ac...

Scientists discover "missing link" between rare disease and inherited forms of breast cancer

...nce activated, FANCD2 gives rise to a protein that switches on BRCA1. "FANCD2 turns out to be the missing link between the Fanconi anemia enzyme and the switching on of BRCA1," D'Andrea says. "When FANCD2 is activated, it serves as a 'zip code' that sends the FANCD2 protein to BRCA1. Once bound, the FANCD...

A worm is more like a human than previously thought

...ne day to complete. "We are learning about genetic switches and how they work together to create us," said Rot...hman believes that the research into these genetic switches will provide a basis for tissue engineering, which will come to fruition in the next few decades. R...

Putting randomness to work: unique form of nanoscale random motion may drive key cellular functions

...initially tightly bound to the microtubule and switches its conformation so that it is weakly bound to the microtubule. The kinesin's trailing head -- to which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is still bound after ATP hydrolysis and release of a phosphate -- releases from the microtubule. ATP ...

Researchers build diagram of cell cycle clock

...divide. This network diagram describes the genetic switches and connections that form the circuit common to a ...o. "We now have a technique to connect the control switches that make up the network for any living process you can think ofmemory, digestion, aging. In turn, t...

Switching on the fly genome

...ape and behavior. An event may require hundreds of switches to be thrown, and understanding basic biological p...gnal. Jasper and Bohmann found that JNK activation switches on a gene called profilin, leading to an increased concentration of the profilin protein. This molec...

Assaulting the mosquitos sense of smell

...ifferent chemicals, it has kept the same molecular switches and machinery. The system in your nose and my nose recapitulates that found in insects, says Zwiebel. The fact that the olfactory system is so highly conserved helped the researchers identify the A. gambiae odorant receptor genes. They found four pot...

New computer program detects overlooked gene segments: Previous estimates of human gene number too low

...he very first pieces of genes, and the nearby "on" switches of genes called promoters. Researchers in the bio...ally good at finding these first segments and "on" switches of genes. The program is tailored toward detecting these features in the human genome sequence, but ...

Science's Top Ten: nanoscale computing circuits named top scientific advance of 2001

...ts that link together tiny transistors, wires, and switches to carry out basic computing operations were named this year's top scientific achievement by the journal Science and its publisher, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The nanocircuits, named the Breakthrough of the Year...

First genetic evidence uncovered of how major changes in body shapes occurred during early animal evolution

...regulatory genes, known as Hox, that act as master switches by turning on and off other genes during embryonic development. Using laboratory fruit flies and a crustacean known as Artemia, or brine shrimp, the scientists showed how modifications in the Hox gene Ubx-which suppresses 100 percent of the limb deve...

MCG researcher develops animal model for studying autoimmune disease

...HC molecule on the dendritic cell. The T cell then switches on, begins to proliferate and determines what other immune components it needs to summon. "The conditional knockout we made enables us to eliminate the MHC molecule from different types of dendritic cells," Dr. Koni said. The four general types of d...

Researchers identify immune response to tuberculosis infection

...ion has been contained, this population of T cells switches roles and becomes memory cells, explains Letvin. They then quietly hang out in the background until another infection develops, and then these memory cells respond very quickly and forcefully [to ward off the new infection]. Although evidence had exi...

'Vigilant vector' could insert genes that sense, prevent heart attacks

...ue of using such vigilant vectors to transmit gene switches could be translated into treatments for a host of other disorders as well, such as diabetes and stroke. The concept is that we give an IV injection, and although the vector goes everywhere in the body, it only works in the heart or other targeted org...

Scientists identify the 'Bin Laden' of cancer causing faulty proteins

...dy needs them. Sometimes it fails to switch off or switches itself on when it is not wanted. Normally our bodies have a fail safe mechanism which causes cells to commit suicide if c-Myc malfunctions in this way. This switching on of c-Myc and the failure of the cell suicide mechanism are two of the mutations ...

Key powerhouse enzyme linked to cancer development

...es designed to manipulate the genetic pathway that switches the enzyme on and off. The enzyme PRDX3 inhabits ... certain proteins bind to it, acting like ignition switches to increase expression. The investigators found that a key ignition switch controlling activation o...

Can we enlist substitute genes to fight muscular dystrophy

... researchers demonstrated how heregulin ultimately switches on Sp1, a transcription factor, which then binds to a specific region of the DNA that drives the utrophin gene. Once attached to DNA, Sp1, along with another heregulin-stimulated transcription factor called GABP /, attracts the cellul...

Promising new therapies for deadly form of leukemia

...membranes of developing blood cells. FLT3 normally switches on at specific times during the maturation of blood cells. In AML, however, the gene for FLT3 is mutated, so that it produces a receptor that is constantly or constitutively active. This activity disrupts the blood cells' development and causes unc...

Penn State College of Medicine researchers correct scientific theory about how gene switch works

...on comes down to describing the components of gene switches and understanding how the various components work ...fer a new set of parameters for understanding gene switches as scientists search for the reasons why faulty gene switches cause illness. The study, titled "Gene...

Fluid forces within the body help invasive bacteria

...ynamic simulations describing how mechanical force switches the adhesion strength of FimH from low to high. ...n. These adhesion proteins thus serve as nanoscale switches that convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response," Vogel says The forces described in the pa...

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