Tag: "switches" at biology news

New genomics tool boosts diabetes research

...e sets of genes where transcription factors act as switches and to learn how defects in these switches might cause disease". In October 2002, a team led by Young, who also is a professor of biology at Ma...

Scientists discover why not enough choline results in fewer brain cells, poorer memory

...arkable switch into these genes something like the switches we have on the walls at home and at work," Zeisel said. "In this very complicated study, we've discovered that the diet during pregnancy turns on or turns off division of stem cells that form the memory areas of the brain. Once you have changed forma...

New RNA libraries can selectively inactivate human genes

... involved in human disease, or to be key molecular switches in the cell. The library of genes was integrated into a retroviral vector that was capable of shuttling the genes into other cell types. The researchers also incorporated a DNA "bar-coding" system, by which each RNA molecule can be tagged ...

Biosensor-regulated gene therapy reduces heart attack damage in mice

...a gene therapy strategy that acts in the heart and switches on or off, so that the therapeutic protein is produced only where and when it is needed." "One of the exciting aspects of the approach, described by Tang et al, is the ability to directly link expression of potentially therapeutic genes to a patholog...

Newborn lambs' central heating system could aid fat busting in humans

... and PGC-1 alpha, suggesting that they are the key switches that control conversion of immature fat cells into brown rather than white fat. "Having established the key role of PPARs and PGC-1 alpha we're now focusing on what drugs and natural compounds could reverse the process," says Dr Sadiq. "Already the d...

Florida Tech researchers win $912,700 grant for cell studies

...h furthers their efforts to understand the genetic switches that trigger the reproduction of the bacterium Escherichia coli. "One of the fundamental problems in biology is to understand how cell growth is regulated," said Leonard. "We think of the inner workings of the cell as machinery and some of the ma...

UNC researchers identify virus gene involved in tumor cell growth, spread

... Hill scientists have identified a viral gene that switches on cellular genes involved in promoting tumor cell growth and metastasis throughout the body. The K1 gene in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) initiates these processes by causing cells to secrete growth and invasive factors. Since ther...

Kinase backgrounder: Iressa discovery part of major kinase project at Dana-Farber

...e it grow and function. Many kinases act as on-off switches inside cells, controlling the continuous flow of chemical signals that tell the cell what to do. A kinase sends a "go" message by adding a chemical unit called a phosphate to another protein, changing its shape or altering its function. The Kinase Pr...

Plant-like enzyme acts as key life cycle switch in malaria parasite

...ormally seen in plants. These plant-like molecular switches have a unique architecture and, unlike their human counterparts, are regulated by calcium directly. By constructing transgenic parasites in which individual kinases were deleted from the genome, the team established the essential role played by one,...

Cell division can be halted in multiple ways, with implications for cancer

...d the upstream components that regulate senescence switches would all make compelling subjects of study for pharmaceutical companies, biotech firms and other university researchers. "When it comes to developing drugs, this information is gold," he said. "Because it should be possible to develop therapeutics t...

Researchers identify new target of protein involved in cancerous cell growth

...years that Ras proteins work as molecular 'on/off' switches that can change the way cells grow, and interact with other cells. Mutated forms of Ras that are locked in the 'on' position are involved in about 30 percent of all human cancers. Our study identifies a new way in which these forms of Ras may drive t...

Flies may taste bitter better, first map of insect 'tongue' reveals

...rs, the Duke team found. Receptors are the protein switches that trigger the nerve cells to send signals to the brain's taste-processing centers in response to particular food items or other chemicals. The unique coding of the flies' tasting cells raises the possibility that insects can discern among differen...

USC researcher named General Motors Cancer Research Scholar

...igenetic gene regulation the heritable on and off switches of genes that are associated with chemical modifications to the DNA and proteins in the nucleus that will ultimately make a difference in the understanding and treatment of cancer. A native of Phoenix, Ariz., Rice earned his doctorate in pharmacolog...

The key to cell motility

...me active in the first place. What were the master switches that control the activity of Rac and the fundamental cell processes it controls? All that was known until recently was that inside cells, Rac is controlled by a protein known as RhoGDI, which is in the cell's cytosol. Rac is inactive in resting cel...

Research suggests new avenue for stopping, preventing colon cancer

...three "transcription factors" that serve as on-off switches for a wide variety of genes. DuBois is internationally known for his pioneering studies linking the development of colorectal cancer to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. COX-2 is a major target for drugs that relieve the pain and inflammation of ...

Binocular rivalry: Fulfilling visual expectations

...her's is suppressed. Every few seconds, perception switches spontaneously between the two images. While binocular rivalry is rarely encountered in the normal visual environment, it provides a useful means of probing the workings of the visual parts of our brain: although an experimental visual stimulus is art...

Experimental drug shown to block mutant protein causing blood disease

...osine kinases are molecules that act as biological switches inside cells, regulating processes including cell division and growth. Abnormal kinases have been discovered to be major culprits in many forms of cancer. Because inhibitor drugs strike the abnormal kinases in cancer cells without harming normal tiss...

DuPont scientist named one of the world's top young innovators by MIT's 'Technology Review' Magazine

...dustry's early commercial samples of polymer-based switches and multiplexers, allowing ever-faster telecommunication. Dr. Petrucci-Samija produced and patented a polymer so transparent to light that it rivaled the performance of the state-of-the-art glass optical devices that are the norm in telecommunicatio...

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