Tag: "synthesizing" at biology news

Three-D images shed light on first steps of RNA synthesis

...ing nucleotide, and once the RNA polymerase begins synthesizing RNA, the sigma subunit is no longer needed. Gene e...a role in telling the RNA polymerase when to start synthesizing RNA. "The linker sticks inside the polymerase and actually blocks the path of the RNA," says Darst....

From a single DNA strand, a tiny motor

...ith each other. Researchers tap this property when synthesizing new DNA molecules for motors. Like all motors, nanomotors need power. DNA is useful because it gets its energy through chemistry as opposed to traditional sources such as electricity.DNA is useful because it can participate in biological activities (...

Scientists produce long, hair-like nanotubes

...t would be easily adaptable and more efficient for synthesizing the long strands for practical applications. This new method produced nanotubes that measured 20 centimeters, much longer than conventional nanotubes, said Pulickel Ajayan. Carbon nanotubes are generally microns in length, which is not long enough f...

American Cancer Society funds Space Station scientist who studies how good cells turn bad

...ered RPA and learned it is a protein essential for synthesizing or copying DNA so it can become part of new cells and for repairing DNA. RPA interacts with Rad52, which was first recognized for its importance in helping yeast survive when exposed to radiation. Familial breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are re...

Michigan State scientists identify chemical come-on of sea lamprey

...mpreys is likely applicable to other fish and that synthesizing pheromones both to control and boost fish populations holds promise....

A trillion computers in a drop of water: Scientists build a nanoscale computing machine using biological molecules

...change in the body and decide how to correct it by synthesizing and releasing the necessary drug, says Prof. Zvi Livneh, a DNA expert from the Institutes Department of Biological Chemistry who collaborated on this project....

New small gene class found by Dartmouth geneticists may exert far reaching influence on cell behavior

...ment, but unlike most timing controls, instead of synthesizing protein, it repressed protein production from certain other genes. Lin-4 was the first gene of its kind identified, but was an only example in just one organism. "So initially, we worked on something novel, a gene important for C. elegans developmen...

Pattern in protein manufacture found in hippocampus

...l pulses, but they could also store information by synthesizing proteins from mRNA templates. "This raises the possibility that there is a pattern or code in the order of translation and mechanics of the translational process that exists in these translation sites at the dendritic level for the formation of memor...

Nature's chemical weapons save lives

... materials. Since that time, Romo's group has been synthesizing derivatives of this natural product based on the published synthetic route. One set of derivatives will enable these chemists, in collaboration with biochemists, to find a potentially new cellular protein involved in the normal human immune response....

Ohio State chemists synthesize possible new anti-tumor agent

...om . "More important than synthesizing the agent is what we've learned along the way," Coleman said. "We need to understand the chemical mechanisms behind azinomycin A so that we can develop more effective anti-tumor agents...

Synthetic clay could assist radioactive waste cleanup

...rials. In this recent experiment, he succeeded in synthesizing Na-4 into a fine powder more useful for practical applications than the large crystals previously synthesized. The research was performed at Penn State's Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Agronomy....

Scientists probing the origins of life develop method of making novel proteins using a 21st amino acid

...NA -- the genetic material that is responsible for synthesizing proteins -- could have acted as the catalyst for r...cated," said Suga. "The biggest stumbling block is synthesizing the unnatural amino acid and attaching it to transfer RNA." According to Suga, attachment is physic...

Faster nanowires may advance nanotechnological applications for detecting glucose, hormones or DNA

...aken an important step toward making such wires by synthesizing a material that conducts electricity faster and farther than earlier designs. In the Feb. 23 issue of the journal Science, chemistry Associate Professor Christopher Chidsey, graduate students Stephen P. Dudek and Hadley Sikes, and several scientis...

Chemists report new approach to synthetic fragments of medically important Heparin

...iversity of Georgia have developed a new method of synthesizing the principal constituent units of Heparin, a widely used anti-coagulant that is thought to be involved in numerous biological processes with proteins. Since Heparin (or its components) is involved with coagulation, growth factor activation and cell...

Yale researchers solve structure of the ribosome: groundbreaking achievement 'like climbing Mount Everest'

...ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for synthesizing protein molecules in all organisms. In addition to...cure disease by selectively inhibiting the protein synthesizing activity of large ribosomal subunits in disease-causing bacteria, while leaving human ribosomes alon...

NSF-funded researchers discover evidence of microscopic life at the South Pole

... surprised that they were metabolically active and synthesizing DNA and protein at local ambient temperatures of -12 to -17 Celsius (10.4 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit)," said Edward J. Carpenter, of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, who headed the research team. "Before attempting to publish the resul...

UCSF study reveals mechanism of telomerase enzyme that could lead to target for cancer therapy, cell regeneration

...he other reverse transcriptase enzymes function by synthesizing copies of DNA from the RNA folded within their protein. Nearly all organisms have an enzyme that can stimulate the conversion of DNA, which contains an organism's genetic code, or genes, into messenger RNA, the first step on the road to developing pr...

Brookhaven Lab collaboration determines the atomic structure of a key enzyme called a 'biological blowtorch'

...ral important chemical jobs in the body, including synthesizing estrogen and detoxifying chemicals as they enter the body. In addition, the enzyme may have medical and commercial applications in cancer therapy, in reducing pollution in industrial waste streams, and in manufacturing epoxies. Specifically, the res...

Researchers find structure of enzyme that catalyzes 78-million-year reaction

...e enzyme works on is the last intermediate step in synthesizing UMP -- one of the four letters of the genetic code and is therefore needed by all organisms for growth. A report on the research appears in Tuesday's (Feb. 29) issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. UNC-CH School of Medicine ...

Distance between atoms is key to iron protein function

...o activate oxygen for critical reactions, such as synthesizing DNA building blocks or converting methane into methanol. Sometimes, in a process called biomineralization, the same intermediate is used to store iron atoms within the protective protein envelope of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. "The pu...

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