Tag: "hiv" at biology news

High rates of HIV infection documented among young Nepalese girls sex-trafficked to India

... Approximately 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across the globe every year, and 80 percent of these individuals are estimated to be women and girls, according to the...

Discovery in plant virus may help prevent HIV and similar viruses

... ... "After HIV infects a person, it must recruit and latch onto pa...

Injection drug use and HIV and HCV infections among Ontario prison inmates

In this issue of CMAJ, 2 research groups report on the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in different inmate populations: people in provincial prisons in Quebec, and adult and young offenders admitted to remand facilities (jails, detention centres and youth centres) in Ontario. The Ontario study is highlighted below; the Quebec study appears in a separate release posted on...

Injection drug use the most important risk factor for HIV and HCV infections among Quebec prisoners

In this issue of CMAJ, 2 research groups report on the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in different inmate populations: people in provincial prisons in Quebec, and adult and young offenders admitted to remand facilities (jails, detention centres and youth centres) in Ontario. The Quebec study is highlighted below; the Ontario study appears in a separate release posted at...

New target for HIV/AIDS drugs and vaccine discovered

Researchers from Rome, Italy, describe a finding in the August 2007 print issue of The FASEB Journal that could lead to new drugs to fight the HIV/AIDS virus, as well as new vaccines to prevent infection. It has been known that HIV proteins disable the antibody-forming part of the immune system (the homeland defense or acquired immune system). In this report, researchers demonstrate for the firs...

Can the tonsils influence oral HIV transmission?

... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spreads mainly through sexual contact of mucosal surfaces, which the virus must cross to come in contact with underlying immune cells for infection to occur. While the oral mucosal surfaces are larg...

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

PITTSBURGH -- Carnegie Mellon University scientists have made an important discovery that aids the understanding of why HIV enters immune cells with ease. The researchers found that after HIV docks onto a host cell, it dramatically lowers the energy required for a cell membrane to bend, making it easier for the virus to infect immune cells. The finding, in press in Biophysical Journal, will prov...

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

... This international collaboration has been the largest ever to have taken place in a large scale study on genetic differences between patients infected by HIV, and is the first study of this kind in the field of infectious disease. Catalan participants have been coordinated by Javier Martnez-Picado, ICREA research professor in the Foundation irsiCaixa of Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, and...

Genomic analysis uncovers new targets for HIV vaccine

... ... The study, published early online by the journal...

First genome-wide study of infectious disease opens new avenues for HIV treatment, vaccines

The first genome-wide association study of an infectious disease, conducted by an international group of researchers through the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI), has yielded a new understanding of why some people can suppress virus levels following HIV infection. The clearer picture of host responses to the virus achieved through this examination of genomes could lead to improved...

Clues to future evolution of HIV come from African green monkeys

... ... ... "Studying SIV helps us l...

New treatment model for HIV

Treatment of HIV patients must balance the need to suppress viral replication against the harmful side effects and significant cost to the patient of antiretroviral therapy. This tradeoff has led to the development of various drug-sparing HIV-1 treatment strategies, which often results in the emergence of resistant viruses and overall treatment failure. This has prompted an interest in induction...

Major breakthrough in understanding how HIV interferes with infected cell division

... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes AIDS by depleting essential immune cells called CD4+T lymphocytes in infected individuals, resulting in a compromised immune system. At the center of this process is the HIV protein, viral protein R (Vpr), which stops infected CD4+T cells from dividing and as a consequen...

A compound from olive-pomace oil gets 80 percent slowing down of HIV spread

...... , headed by Prof. Andrs Garca-Granados, senior lecturer in Organic Chemistry. Their work shows that maslinic acid a natural product extracted from dry olive-pomace oil in oil mills inhibits serin-protease, an enzyme used by...

New amfAR research grants to optimize HIV treatment

... Among those projects is a study exploring the potential benefits of maraviroc, a new antiretroviral drug expected to be approved by the FDA soon. Maraviroc works by blocking the cell surface protein CCR5 and thus preventing the virus from entering cells. amfAR funded research 10 years a...

Hepatitis B drug can compromise HIV treatment

... In findings published June 21, 2007, online in the journal, the researchers reported that a patient infected with both hepatitis B and HIV who was treated with entecavir developed a mutant strain of HIV that is resistant to the antiviral drugs lamivudine and emtricitabine. Entecavir is manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb and is ma...

454 sequencing identifies HIV drug resistance at early stage

BRANFORD, Conn., June 15, 2007 454 Life Sciences, a member of the Roche group, and a Yale School of Medicine researcher today announced that they have used the companys Genome Sequencer system to identify previously undetectable rare drug resistant HIV variants in samples from an earlier performed clinical trial. The work, presented today by Michael Kozal, M.D. of the Yale University School of...

Ultra deep sequencing identifies HIV drug resistance at early stage

... Kozal, associate professor of medicine at Yale and senior author of the retrospective study that used samples from an earlier clinical trial, presented the findings today at the 16th International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop in Barbados. We found that the fraction of HIV patients that harbored resistance mutations is at least twice as high as previousl...

New study suggests potential for a broadly-protective HIV vaccine

BETHESDA, Md. -- New research conducted at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) suggests that it may be possible to develop a vaccine that protects against the myriad strains of the HIV virus. HIV is extremely variable, so an effective vaccine may need to stimulate the body to produce cross-reactive antibodies that will neutralize multiple viral strains. These results d...

SLU researchers uncover direct evidence on how HIV invades healthy cells

Using sophisticated detection methods, researchers at the Saint Louis University Institute for Molecular Virology (IMV) have demonstrated the molecular mechanism by which the HIV virus infects, or integrates, healthy cells. ...The discovery could lead to new drug treatments for HIV....... Although scientists theorized that two ends of the virus' DNA must come together inside a healthy cell in ord...

Got milk? How breastfeeding affects HIV transmission

Mother to child transmission of HIV accounts for a large proportion of HIV infections in children, with many infected as a result of breastfeeding, which requires transfer of the virus across mucosal barriers. DC-SIGN, a DC lectin receptor, interacts with HIV and is found at high expression levels in tonsillar tissue. ...... In a paper appearing online on October 20 in advance of print publicati...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

... It appears that cells make HIV and other retroviruses by a naturally occurring export mechanism, says Stephen Gould, Ph.D., Professor of Biological Chemistry at Johns Hopkins. Cells normally export certain membrane-bound mol...

HIV in breast milk killed by flash-heating, new study finds

... ... The findings, to appear in the July 1 print issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, but now available online, provide hop...

Hives ferment a yeasty brew, attract beetle pest

The honeybee's alarm signal may not only bring help, but also attract the small hive beetle. Now, an international team of researchers has found that small hive beetles can detect some alarm pheromones at levels below that detected by honeybees.... The beetles associate the alarm chemicals with a good food source and head for the hive. In Africa, where the small hive beetle is a minor honeybee...

HIV survival improves if patients stay in care

... "In an era when highly active therapy directed against HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS) is keeping people alive, understanding the value of regular medical care is crucial," said Dr. Thomas Giordano, assistant professor of medicine infectious diseases at BCM and lead au...

UCLA AIDS Institute researchers find a peptide that encourages HIV infection

... ... "Although it may seem counterintuitive to value or even study a peptide that increases the ability of HIV-1 to enter a broad range of human...

Vaccine to cope with viral diversity in HIV

... This computational method clarifies and analyzes the variation found in the strains of the virus by describing the molecules which stimulate the immune response to HIV (immunogens) that have multiple forms of variable elements of the virus. These antigens compress the variati...

Jefferson scientists find rabies-based vaccine could be effective against HIV

... Reporting April 1, 2007 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, the scientists showed that two years after the initial vaccination, four vaccinated non...

Anti-herpes treatment reduces HIV levels in women infected with both viruses

Experts call for HSV control measures, including vaccine, to rank high on international HIV prevention and research agenda as exciting trial findings are published... Treating women who are infected with both the HSV-2 and HIV viruses with anti-herpes treatment can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood and genital secretions, according to the results of a trial published today in the New England...

European approval of HIV drug darunavir will provide a potent new option with Fuzeon

Basel (CH), 16 February 2007. Today's conditional marketing authorisation in the European Union of the new protease inhibitor (PI) darunavir (boosted with ritonivir) provides physicians with the opportunity to build a potent new treatment combination with the fusion inhibitor, FUZEON. The combination of FUZEON and boosted darunavir has been shown to give treatment-experienced patients a better c...

Researchers discover new details about HIV-1 entry and infection

... "The majority of HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women who acquire HIV infection following sexual contact," explain study authors Dr. Florian Hladik and Dr. M. Juliana McElrath from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Blocking HIV transmission and local spread in the fem...

HIV protein enlisted to help kill cancer cells

Cancer cells are sick, but they keep growing because they don't react to internal signals urging them to die. Now researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found an efficient way to get a messenger into cancer cells that forces them to respond to death signals. And they did it using one of the most sinister pathogens around HIV.... "HIV knows how to insert itself...

Phase III trials of cellulose sulfate microbicide for HIV prevention closed

... Simultaneously, Family Health International (FHI) has halted a second Phase III cellulose sulfate trial in Nigeria. Although the FHI trial did n...

Antiretroviral resistance testing in HIV infected patients improves health and saves costs

), which is one of the largest cohort studies on HIV disease including patients from all University Clinics and two state hospitals in Switzerla...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

... Princeton scientists Leor Weinberger and Thomas Shenk hope their work will illuminate the processes by which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses transition into dormant phases in their hosts. The researchers have discovered a specific genetic trigger that makes HIV fall into its latent phase, where the virus essentially hibernates, relatively ha...

New HIV test may predict drug resistance

... ... The test, which detects genetic changes, or mut...

A simple feedback resistor switch keeps latent HIV from awakening

Upon entering a cell, a virus often becomes dormant, turning off its genes and laying low until awakened by som e trigger from its environment. When that trigger is pulled, the virus quickly ramps up production of proteins through built-in positive-feedback loops that turn up gene transcription. (In positive feedback, production of something stimulates more production of that thing, resulting in...

HIV treatments improve health, but nutritional issues remain

Boston Despite the success of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), people with HIV may still be at higher risk for nutritional deficiencies and abnormalities. In two different studies, researchers at the Nutrition/Infection Unit in the Department of Public Health and Family Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine, and colleagues examined the incidence of metabolic syndrome an...

Quality not quantity important for immune response to HIV

... "Conventional medical wisdom tells us that the bigger the immune response, the more effective it will be in controlling HIV," says Professor Philip Goulder, a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow in Clinical Science at the University of Oxford. "However, ou...

'Lessons learned' highlighted as global politics of HIV/AIDS examined in new research

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