Tag: "adaptation" at biology news

Teenage and 60-year-old mums are consequences of evolution

...her than the menopause itself, is the evolutionary adaptation that has occurred in the human line over the past ...ng-term evolutionary adaptation, but a more recent adaptation is our longevity, helped by better hygiene, medicine and so on. So I believe that we should use this...

Early bird caught the fish: Fossils depict aquatic origins of birds 115 million years ago

... clear signs that Gansus swam. "Webbed feet is an adaptation that has evolved repeatedly in widely separate groups of animals, such as sea turtles, whales and manatees, and would only hinder climbing or landing in trees," Harris said. "The big bony crest that sticks off the knee-end of their lower leg bones a...

Salk research suggests the existence of specialized neurons that distinguish swagger from sway

... output of individual neurons. "In the past, when adaptation in behavior was observed for specific features, neurophysiologists have subsequently been able to find individual neurons which fire only when they encounter this feature," says Jordan. "We think that the same is true for maleness and femaleness - th...

Ready, set, mutate and may the best microbe win

...cate study suggests that the pathways of molecular adaptation are reproducible and not highly variable under identical conditions," Shamoo said....

New species of monkey discovered in Tanzania is a new genus

... drop below freezing; its long coat is probably an adaptation to the cold. Co-authors of the study include scientists from the Field Museum, Yale University and the University of Alaska Museum....

Study provides new understanding of spontaneous hybridization

...daptive trait introgression has a vital impact on adaptation and evolutionary diversification. "The role of hybridization in adaptive evolution is contentious. While many cases of adaptive trait introgression have been proposed, the relevant traits have rarely been identified, resulting in a lack of clear exam...

Five Spanish hospitals in international phase III trial with H5N1 influenza pandemic vaccine

...n the best weapons to combat a possible definitive adaptation to humans of the H5N1 virus. In any case, this effort led by Spain, Germany, Holland, Sweden, Russia, France and Estonia will permit to improve the available tools in order to face this or future pandemics....

Scientists discover that ancient genes dictate flowering, fall bud set

... CO and FT genetic pathway is key to understanding adaptation to climate change, as well as to speeding tree breeding....

The urban evolution lab

...al laboratory for evolutionary biologists to watch adaptation happening before their eyes. In 2003, for example, Hans Slabbekoorn of Leiden University in the Netherlands showed that urban great tits sing at a higher pitch than their country cousins so that their songs stand out better against the city noise, wh...

Possible brain hormone may unlock mystery of hibernation

...rotein complex as an essential coordinator of this adaptation to the depredations of winter." "The finding has more than passing biological interest because understanding how tissues cope with the cardiovascular and oxidative stresses associated with hibernation or torpor may have direct clinical relevance," he...

News tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

...king correct responses. Interestingly, the rate of adaptation was the same with or without an explicit strategy. Thus, the motor system, with a mind of its own, overrides explicit strategies involving subject awareness. Sometimes it's better not to think too much, it seems. 4. Imbalanced Neural Activity inPark...

Starving diamond-back still grows; rattler cuts metabolism 80 percent, use lipid energy source

...isms that the snakes employ. "Perhaps the greatest adaptation in this species is their ability to reduce energy expenditures by an average of 80% over 168 days of starvation," McCue said. In addition to slowing down to conserve energy, McCue found that the snakes "chiefly 'fed' on their energy-rich lipid stores...

The 'oxygen imperative'

...the cell's energy-generating "power plants"). That adaptation may have marked the beginning of complex life on Earth. What's more, recent research suggests that a sharp rise in atmospheric oxygen about 50 million years ago was the evolutionary boost that enabled mammals to grow in size and ultimately dominate t...

Study describes how cells return to normal after responding to stress

...that CHIP would play an important role in cellular adaptation under those circumstances as well." He said the design of drugs to enhance the activity of CHIP might be a valid approach to treating diseases of protein misfolding or chronic stress. Along with Patterson and Qian, co-authors on the study include ...

Minor mutations in avian flu virus increase chances of human infection

...2-6 receptor specificity is a critical step in the adaptation of avian viruses to a human host and appears to be... used to identify the mutations which could enable adaptation of H5N1 into the human population in the laboratory, could also be used to help identify new active ...

Fat rats reveal why short-term overeating can lead to obesity and diabetes

...obesity and insulin resistance displayed defective adaptation to an increase in fat availability coupled with a severe impairment in the ability of the brain to sense fat intake. Further studies will be required to establish the critical role of this biochemical pathway in nutrient sensing in other animal model...

JCI table of contents, March 9, 2006

...obesity and insulin resistance displayed defective adaptation to an increase in fat availability coupled with a severe impairment in the ability of the brain to sense fat intake. Further studies will be required to establish the critical role of this biochemical pathway in nutrient sensing in other animal model...

Adaptation to oxygen deprivation elucidates tumor physiology

...uired oxygen." The new studies rather reveal that adaptation to hypoxia depends on an active process that serves to inhibit respiration and shunt pyruvate, the lactate precursor, away from mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cells' "power plants," where food-derived molecules are converted to usable energy via ...

Training improves sound localization in ferrets

...ual recalibration of auditory space." Furthermore, adaptation did not depend on error feedback, since rewards were not based on performance. After removal of the earplugs, ferrets made errors reflecting a small bias toward the previously plugged ear: they initially processed the cues as if the ear was still plu...

New evidence that natural selection is a general driving force behind the origin of species

...'t really understood how or whether the process of adaptation generally drives this pattern of species diversifi...her there is a positive link between the degree of adaptation to different environments by closely related groups and the extent to which they can interbreed, wha...

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