Tag: "amino" at biology news
NIH awards new $14.5 million, five-year grant to the Scripps Research Institute
...protein expression machinery -- such as the genes, amino
acid building blocks, and enzymesand puts them all together in a test tube under conditions that favor expression. In vitro expression has been used to make membrane proteins in a few limited cases, but it is far from routine. Chang calls the tech...
Commandeering cellular machinery: recognition mechanism to detect small molecules
...edge of RXR's structure to modify the 20 different amino
acids that make up the receptor pocket. The goal was to create a library containing 32,768 different variations in the hope of creating and then finding a few re-engineered receptors that would have the ability to bind to a molecule known as LG335...
Protein energy profiles offer clues about amyloids
... instance, because of genetic flaws that cause the amino
acid sequence to be incorrectly synthesized. "The second way proteins go wrong is by not folding at all, which is what we find in diseases involving amyloids. In these situations, the misfolded proteins assemble together into macroscopic aggregates."...
U-M scientists see ubiquitin-modified proteins in living cells
...zymes, lysosomes break down unwanted proteins into amino
acids the cell recycles to make new proteins. "Jun's function in the nucleus is transient and time-dependent," Kerppola says. "If it's turned on and doesn't get turned off, that's not normal. Prolonged signaling causes aberrant growth and oth...
Component of volcanic gas may have played a significant role in the origins of life on Earth
...on the origins of life on Earth--how did the first amino
acids form the first peptides? Peptides and proteins are strings of amino
acid building blocks, and they are one of the most important classes of biological molecules found i...
Purdue chemists give an old laboratory 'bloodhound' a sharper nose
...aces for the presence of chiral acids, such as the amino
acids that form our bodies' proteins. It could assist with the search for life elsewhere in the cosmos." John B. Fenn, who shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for chemistry, said that the DESI technique could also be used for biomedical testing. ...
Antibiotic identified as potential anti-cancer candidate
...dification called an N-formyl group from the first amino
acid, a methionine, in the protein chain. While work began on the development of antibiotics against what was thought to be a bacterial-exclusive enzyme, genome-based data searches identified several classes of Pdf-like sequences in parasites, plant...
Single genetic defect links many risk factors for heart disease and stroke
...fer RNAs are critical carrier molecules that ferry amino
acids during the constructions of proteins in the ...erial to a protein, a tRNA latches onto a specific amino
acid that it was designed to carry and transports it to the site of protein synthesis. There, it doc...
Newly discovered protein suggests novel tumorigenic pathway
...nt of the mutations are located in a segment of 70 amino
acids at the C-terminus of PTEN. These mutations lead to the rapid degradation of PTEN in cells, indicating that this region is critical for ensuring PTEN stability. Studies have shown that cells add phosphate molecules to specific serine and thre...
Trojan-horse therapy blocks buildup of Alzheimer's plaque
... he said. "Such drugs typically bind only to a few amino
acids in the protein, which the virus can easily a...r the virus to block by mutations affecting single amino
Research to explore revolutionary gene sequencing: Threading the molecular needle
...ively be used as sensors to "read" the sequence of amino
acid code (DNA "bases") in the human genome that comprises many millions of bases. "Cyclodextrins are Mother Nature's little molecular rings," explained Lindsay. "They are just big enough to slide a strand of DNA through. Conveniently, Mot...
Structure of new DNA enzyme family member found
...ence similarity, they all contain three invariable amino
acids. The similar shapes of the proteins position these three important pieces at the right place in the protein, and as a result, they all have a similar function -- the addition of a phosphate group to a DNA or RNA precursor. "When we saw how very...
Sexual competition drives evolution of a sex-related gene
... protein evolution rates by counting the number of amino
acid changes in the protein, then scaling it to the amount of evolutionary time taken to make those changes. "The idea is that in species with promiscuous females, there's more selective pressure for the male to make his semen more competitive. It's...
New protein structure may aid in design of therapeutics for autoimmune disease
...mphocytes, or T cells. These cells recognize short amino
acid chains, or antigens, that are displayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and initiate immune responses when activated by the antigens. "PKCΘ is selectively recruited to the contact region between T cells and antigen-presentin...
'Blind' cells see the light; maybe someday humans will, too
...ays open. They also added an extra molecule -- the amino
acid cysteine -- to the channel protein so that, once the protein gets in place in the cell membrane, this molecule dangles off the outer surface of the cell like a fish hook. They then inserted the mutated potassium channel gene into cells from the ...
A new species of amyloid peptide
...enerally, amyloid β-peptides are around 39-43 amino
acid long. Studies have shown that the longer amyl...a new species of amyloid β-peptide that is 46 amino
acids long, called Aβ 46 . This Aβ 46 peptide is produced by γ-secretase at a novel ...
Improved molecular switch could serve as sensor, medical tool
...inding protein, both proteins being long chains of amino
acids that can be thought of as long ribbons. In the new process, the team joined the two natural ends of the beta-lactamase chain to create one continuous molecular loop. Then, they snipped this "ribbon" at random points before inserting the beta-la...
Horwitz Prize to be shared by Tony Hunter, Anthony Pawson
...hormone action. Tyrosine is one of the 20 amino
acids found in proteins. In 1979, Hunter discovered that a phosphate could be attached to tyrosine in proteins, a significant advancement in understanding how cell growth is regulated. Tyrosine kinases the enzymes that add phosphates to proteins te...
Wobble hypothesis stands up, NC state researcher finds
...es that are translated by transfer RNA (tRNA) into amino
acids; proteins are made of amino
acids. But there are only 20 natural amino
acids. Squaring the disparity between the number of codes...
Read your shampoo's label: Study finds common ingredient stunts developing neurons of rats
...ed phosphate groups are added to FAK's sequence of amino
acids. Like all proteins, FAK is comprised of a unique sequence of some 20 amino
acids, including tyrosine, so any change, such as through phosphorylation, essentially changes its f...
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