Tag: "confer" at biology news

Darwin's greatest challenge tackled: the mystery of eye evolution

... relocated into an eye and gained the potential to confer vision." The scientists discovered that two types of light-sensitive cells existed in our early animal ancestors: rhabdomeric and ciliary. In most animals, rhabdomeric cells became part of the eyes, and ciliary cells remained embedded in the brain. B...

Researchers call for studies on role of BRCA1 mutations in chemotherapy response

..., but loss-of-function mutations in the BRCA1 gene confer up to an 82% risk of breast cancer and up to a 54%...hat BRCA1 inactivation through mutation appears to confer sensitivity to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used to treat breast and ovarian cancers...

'Blind' cells see the light; maybe someday humans will, too

...ake it work." "With this technique, you also could confer light sensitivity on organisms that normally don't have vision, such as the nematode worm C. elegans," Trauner said. "Taking this from a chemical novelty to showing that it works in a biological system is a real breakthrough." Kramer, Trauner and the...

Studies in Royal Society journals include stress in birds and depletion of medieval fish stocks

...s that themselves are generalists. These features confer relative tolerance to extinction for plant species...r populations, however, ants are less abundant and confer no benefits. Little is known about how variation in indirect interactions, such as those between an...

Researchers discover a stem-cell switch lurking within leukemias

...rmal chromosomal rearrangements they thought might confer the ability to self-renew. These cancer genes caus...illiland. "But we found that only MOZ-TIF2 could confer the property of self-renewal on any type of progenitor cell. BCR-ABL could not turn on those self-...

Predator fish heat their eyes to track prey

...arming the eyes and the advantage that "warm eyes" confer on ocean predators. Swordfishes, which hunt in water as cold as 3C (about 37F), can maintain their brain and eye temperatures 10C15C (18F 27F) above ambient temperatures by using a specially adapted heating organ in muscle next to their eyes. The bio...

Protein stops growth of brain tumor, OHSU study shows

...that the mutant EGF receptor may have developed to confer resistance to the class of inhibitors that blocks the extracellular domain" on the glioblastoma cells. About a third of all glioblastomas derive from the mutant receptor, Neuwelt said. Although herstatin is not effective against the mutant EGF recept...

Wisconsin scientists find portal to show animals evolve

... features - a spot here or a stripe there - that confer advantages in attracting mates, hiding from or con...ents - accidents that are preserved" because they confer some kind of advantage. While the decorations on a fruit fly's wing begin as accidents of developmen...

Research focusing on why estrogenic hormones produce differing results

...gions of the human progesterone receptor gene that confer hormone responsiveness. In the study, the activities of estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifene and the soy phytoestrogens genestein and daidzein were examined and compared in uterine, mammary and bone cell lines. The researchers found vast differences bas...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...ted genes acquire new functions, however, they may confer a selective advantage to an organism, leading to the rise of lineage-specific genes over evolutionary time. Bork's team identified a total of 22 genes with more than one copy in humans but only a single copy in all other species tested. They then tu...

Merck / AAAS announce 2005 winners for outstanding undergraduate research programs

...hemical Society-certified program in chemistry and confer 10 or fewer graduate degrees annually in biology and chemistry combined. For additional information, send questions to merck@aaas.org or visit the web site at www.merckaaasusrp.org . The Merck Company Foundation is an US-based, private, charitab...

Learning to fight an adversary that won't stay down

...ies. "There are more than 300 genes now known that confer resistance to one or more antimicrobials. And they keep coming." However, the mapping of bacterial genomes has not yet helped yield solutions to the problem, says Dr. Davies. He adds that our understanding of the activity of microbes must extend beyo...

Why some lung cancers stop responding to Tarceva and Iressa

...ion, which was the same in all three tumors, could confer resistance to the EGFR mutants normally sensitive to these drugs. "It is especially interesting that the mutation we found is strictly analogous to a mutation that makes other kinds of tumors resistant to another targeted therapy, imatinib mesylate (...

MGH study identifies potential Alzheimer's risk gene

... 4 to 7 additional gene variants may be found that confer similar levels of risk. Co-authors of the NEJM report are Mikko Hiltunen, PhD, Michelle Parkinson, Martin Ingelsson, MD, Karunya Ramasamy, Kristina Mullin, Rashmi Menon, Andrew Sampson, Monica Hsiao, Thomas Moscarillo, Bradley Hyman, MD, and Debora...

Researchers identify gene that plays major role in age-related blindness disease

... change a gene's protein products in ways that may confer susceptibility to -- or protection from -- diseases. In this case, the complement factor H (CFH) SNP associated with AMD encodes for a different amino acid, as histidine substitutes for tyrosine at a specific position. The CFH gene lies in a region o...

Tumor individuality useful for guiding rational chemotherapeutic decisions

...mor cells and how common mutations in human tumors confer drug resistance, and demonstrates that combination treatment can restore therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. The research is published in the March issue of the journal Cancer Cell . When damaged or stressed, normal cells die via a carefully cont...

Histamine, anxiety and alcoholism

...lt in higher levels of anxiety which may, in turn, confer vulnerability to alcoholism. Results are published in the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research . "We were interested in examining the role of the functional Thr105Ile variant of HNMT because this is the enzyme which accounts ...

African-American women less likely to undergo genetic testing than white women

...sue of JAMA. Mutations in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer a significantly increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer, according to background information in the article. Women with a BRCA1/2 mutation have a lifetime breast cancer risk of 50 percent to 85 percent and a lifetime ovarian cancer risk of 14 per...

Examining the serotonin transporter gene and family function

...owledged that identification of gene variants that confer risk may be "intellectually rewarding," but he suggested that readers pay just as much attention to "risky behaviors" that become apparent early in life. "Some kids are just different from others," he said, "so neglecting the role of genetic and o...

Same-sex mating discovered in a toxic fungus

...e same mating type," he added. "That ability might confer an advantage for the fungus because patients infected with it predominantly harbor a single mating type, reducing the possibility of normal fungal sexual reproduction." The potentially life-threatening fungus C. neoformans invades the central nervous...

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(Date:10/30/2014)... North Carolina State University researchers have developed a suite ... between dogs and humans, which has applications in everything ... our pets. , "We,ve developed a platform for computer-mediated ... to new avenues for interpreting dogs, behavioral signals and ... Dr. David Roberts, an assistant professor of computer science ...
(Date:10/29/2014)... largest study of its kind to date, researchers have ... heighten the risk for autism. Joseph Buxbaum, Ph.D., Icahn ... Mark Daly, Ph.D., Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, ... from affected children, parents and unrelated people. They identified ... to the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) – ...
(Date:10/29/2014)... industrial products are in the environment – and hundreds ... scientists have yet to determine whether they cause health ... that by estimating which substances people are exposed to ... ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology . , ... to human health of any given substance depend primarily ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):New tech aims to improve communication between dogs and humans 2
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