Tag: "cortex" at biology news

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...On these tasks, firing in the lateralintraparietal cortex (LIP) correlates with the reaction time and the correctnessof the choice. This activity builds over severalhundred milliseconds, suggesting thatLIP could be integrating information beforea decision. This week, Wang andWong built a spiking-neuron netw...

Research shows brain's ability to overcome pain and thirst

... the regions of the brain (the pregenual cingulate cortex and ventral orbitofrontal cortex) activated together during thirst and pain acted like a priority switch. "Depending on internal demands being placed on the body, the brain needs to decide which demand is more important to respond to in order to surv...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...gration and positioning inthe developing mammalian cortex dependson molecules of the Reelin signalingsystem, including the downstreamadapter protein Dab1. This week, Olson etal. suppressed expression of Dab1 in migratingcortical neurons in vivo using RNAi. Normally, cells migratedthrough the cell-dense co...

Engineered mouse mimics cognitive aspects of schizophrenia

...In particular, the relative size of the prefrontal cortex that is involved in the cognitive deficits is much smaller in rodents than in primates. Some of the cognitive symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions are impossible to address. "However, rodent models have the advantage of allowing direct tests...

Combination of PET, MR imaging shows white matter degeneration in Huntington's disease patients

...the brain tissue volumes and the basal ganglia and cortex dysfunction. If so, we may be able to prevent Huntington's disease before onset symptoms by using proper drugs," added the co-author of "Brain White-Matter Volume Loss and Glucose Hypometabolism Precede the Clinical Symptoms of Huntington's Disease....

Experimental drug reverses key cognitive deficits, pathology in Alzheimer's

...receptors, are abundant in areas of the brain--the cortex and hippocampus--known to develop severe deposits ...ls of both pathological plaques and tangles in the cortex and hippocampus, but not in the amygdala. In experiments that demonstrated the central role of M1 re...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...I) studies have suggested that the dorsal premotor cortex is the site of visuomotor hand conditional activity, as well as the frontal eye field (FEF). This week, Amiez et al. addressed whether these functions actually reside in the same location at the intersection of the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) and t...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...al-directed behavior may arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly when possible responses confli...ions of the PFC. Lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex at first hindered the contextual disambiguation, but performance in these rats eventually improved....

Gene influences antidepressant response

...uce the number of serotonin 2A receptors in animal cortex over the course of a few weeks the same time-frame required for the drugs to work in humans suggesting that the receptors are important in the drugs' mechanism of action. Everyone inherits two copies of the serotonin 2A receptor gene, one from each...

Aggression-related gene weakens brain's impulse control circuits

...oral impulses. This region was, conspicuously, the cortex area that was most reduced in volume. The findin...lly weaker connections between the orbital frontal cortex and amygdala in all men, say the researchers. "Heightened sensitivity in brain circuits important ...

Pitt researchers find 'switch' for brain's pleasure pathway

...y the "planning" part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), thereby providing a powerful indirect means for the PFC to affect the activity of dopamine neurons. Such a link could explain how changes in the PFC, seen in disorders like schizophrenia and drug addiction, disrupt the signaling of dopamine ne...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...address the question of whether posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is involved in intention and/or attention. Previous studies have suggested a role for PPC in motor planning (intention) of tasks such as saccades, reaching or grasping, whereas other studies have interpreted the visual sensitivity of PPC neuron...

Cortex matures faster in youth with highest IQ

...he researchers found that the relationship between cortex thickness and IQ varied with age, particularly in ...olds tended to start out with a relatively thinner cortex that thickened rapidly, peaking by age 11 or 12 before thinning. In their peers with average IQ, an ...

'Prosthetic' retinal cells let blind mice see light

...erated signals that were transmitted to the visual cortex of the animals' brains. "With this strategy, the i...ined whether the light signals reaching the visual cortex could be interpreted as vision. Also, the algal protein is less sensitive to light than is the norma...

Blind mice recover visual responses using protein from green algae

...rough the retina and the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain, where visual images are formed. Unfo...ers determined that the signals reached the visual cortex in a majority of the ChR2-treated mice. The light sensitivity persisted for at least six months. Did...

News Tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

...l loss. The authors targeted the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), known to be important for working memory (...puts from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and cortex and send inhibitory output back to the LGN. The authors recorded spike rates of individual visual TR...

Salk research challenges concept that motion perception is all black and white

...does connect to the motion processing areas of the cortex (the outer layer of the brain), and this informati...tive to low contrast and rapid changes. The visual cortex uses the information from these pathways to compute further details about motion, shape, and color. ...

Why nerve cells work faster than the theory allows

...d, by which rules, the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex decide to send out impulses. They surprisingly fou...f action potentials in nerve cells of the cerebral cortex of the mammal brain. They were able to show that action potentials are initiated extremely rapid her...

'Word-vision' brain area confirmed

...ientists have hotly debated whether an area of the cortex called the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) is truly a...s or tumors, which often affect a larger extent of cortex and white matter. The small size of the present lesion thus provides precious support to the idea of...

Attention shoppers: Researchers find neurons that encode the value of different goods

...population of neurons located in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that assigns values to different goods on a common value scale. Assigning values on a common scale allows comparing goods, like apples and oranges, that otherwise lack a natural basis for comparison. Previous work in other laboratories showed ...

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(Date:11/5/2014)... diversity in their ability to identify scents and odors. ... their perceptual evaluation of odors, with women outperforming men ... Sex differences in olfactory detection may play a role ... one,s perception of smell, which is naturally linked to ... been suggested to be cognitive or emotional, rather than ...
(Date:11/4/2014)... of death at the right time might actually help ... that could help in understanding animal populations, pest control ... paper in the journal Trends in Ecology and ... conclude that the kind of positive population effect an ... mortality, depends on the size and developmental stage of ...
(Date:11/4/2014)... 4, 2014) — Think about the way our bodies ... neighboring cells know that they are supposed to become ... these tissues find the correct place and alignment? Researchers ... crucial questions. , In a new study, UM researchers ... with their surrounding neighbors, at the head-trunk region. Their ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):The female nose always knows: Do women have more olfactory neurons? 2When less is more: Death in moderation boosts population density in nature 2The inside story: How the brain and skull stay together 2
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