Tag: "cortex" at biology news

Both alcoholism and chronic smoking can damage the brain's prefrontal cortex

...c the effect of chronic smoking on the prefrontal cortex may be stronger than previously expected. The study also indicates that the combination of smoking and drinking may aggravate the negative long-term effects of either drug on the human brain." "Future research of these dual effects in other brain r...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...mory tasks are separated in the lateral prefrontal cortex into functional subdivisions: dorsal areas handle the spatial features of a task, and ventral areas take on object and color information. The "process-specific" account, in contrast, argues that the ventral areas maintain information while manipulati...

Neurons find their place in the developing nervous system with the help of a sticky molecule

...art of the brain known as the cerebral cortex. The cortex sits like a skullcap over the rest of the brain and is responsible for sensory perception, higher-level reasoning, and, in humans, language. In mammals, the largest and evolutionarily newest part of the cortex, the neocortex, is recognized anatomical...

News tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

... periods, topographical maps are formed in sensory cortex based on dedicated afferent sensory input, a botto...focus differed. The proportion of primary auditory cortex (AI) and suprarhinal auditory field (SRAF) dedicated to auditory frequencies in the target range exp...

Mutant mice show key autism traits

... mature, or "postmitotic," neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in the brain. These regions are as...Pten in postmitotic neurons of the hippocampus and cortex as well as providing new insight into the molecular correlates mediating social- and anxiety-related...

Research shows how visual stimulation turns up genes to shape the brain

...ity, shaping the mesh of neural connections in the cortex and tuning the strengths of messages relayed by sy...They then compared gene expression profiles of the cortex supporting the open eye to that of the missing eye. They found that Bdnf is not alone--visual input ...

News tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

...etamine-induced increase in activity in prefrontal cortex as measured by c-Fos labeling. Although not quite an animal model of ADHD, the Adcyap1−/− mouse may help explain the antihyperkinetic effect of psychostimulants. 4. Lighting up ApoE Expression Patterns Qin Xu, Aubrey Bernardo, David W...

Lost in thought: Brain research

.... Rather, the self-related areas of the prefrontal cortex appear to be engaged specifically when we are aware both of the sensory experience and of ourselves as the observers of this experience. When we are so occupied with the outside world as to "forget ourselves," only local, sensory-specific systems see...

News tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

... ICS increased activity in the posterior cingulate cortex thought to be involved in pain memory and aversion. 4. Corticosteroids and Rat Neural Stem Cells Maria Sundberg, Suvi Savola, Anni Hienola, Laura Korhonen, and Dan Lindholm In this week's Journal , Sundberg et al. examined potential links between ...

The brain's executive is an 'event planner'

...higher brain region, called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). The researchers, led by Hajime Mushiake of...ed on a brain region called the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), which many studies have shown to be involved in such higher brain functions as planning. Howe...

Salk research suggests the existence of specialized neurons that distinguish swagger from sway

...rsity in Toronto. Individual neurons in the visual cortex are finely tuned to certain attributes of visible objects such as the color red, a certain shape or objects moving in a specific direction. These specialized neurons reveal their existence through a telltale effect called adaptation. For example, if ...

Fear circuit flares as bipolar youth misread faces

...t nucleus accumbens, putamen, and left prefrontal cortex were also hyperactive in patients, compared to healthy peers, during the emotional tasks. Patients rated themselves as more afraid, and they rated the faces as more hostile, compared to healthy peers. The groups did not differ on nose width ratings,...

Ritalin packs punch by elevating norepinephrine, suppressing nerve signal transmissions

...ncy sensory responses in the primary somatosensory cortex of awake rats," by Philadelphia-based researchers Candice Drouin, University of Pennsylvania; Michelle Page, Thomas Jefferson University; and Barry Waterhouse, Drexel University College of Medicine appears online in the Journal of Neurophysiology, pu...

News tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

...d after stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Low-frequency stimulation (15 min, 1 Hz, or 900 pulses) transiently suppresses excitability in the targeted cortical regions for several minutes following rTMS. The subjects, young males...

Music thought to enhance intelligence, mental health and immune system

... Scientists found more grey matter in the auditory cortex of the right hemisphere in musicians compared to nonmusicians. They feel these differences are probably not genetic, but instead due to use and practice. Listening to classical music, particularly Mozart, has recently been thought to enhance perfor...

Tips from The Journal of Neuroscience

...like cortical projection neurons, migrate to their cortex locations without Reelin, the secreted product of Cajal-Retzius cells. Cortical interneurons originate in the median ganglionic eminence(MGE), migrate tangentially to cortex, and then radially to their final laminar position. The authors report that ...

Avoiding punishment is its own reward

...task. A brain area called the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been linked to reward-related stimuli, particularly when the reward involves money. The researchers found that the OFC is also activated for avoidance learning, supporting the hypothesis that these cognitive processes share neural mechanism...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...e problem resides. The authors examined prefrontal cortex (PF) neuronal activity in the encoding of previous and future goal selection. Monkeys were presented with three options for spatial goal selection, in the form of shapes on a video screen. In each trial, a complex visual cue accompanied the goals. On...

Researchers get closer to preventing Alzheimer's disease

... levels of beta-amyloid peptides in the entorhinal cortex and found that the amount of beta-amyloid was inversely correlated with IDE activity they measured in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that alterations in IDE might be causally related to beta-amyloid peptides accumulation, starting in...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...cience. The resulting reorganization of the visual cortex leaves the deprived eye compromised once it is uncovered. However, this week Iny et al., using rats, show a bidirectional and reversible enhancement of vision in the open (nondeprived) eye. The authors measured visual acuity by training rats to use c...

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(Date:4/22/2014)... Yale researchers will lead a five-year, $3 million study ... is affecting the transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) ... could alter the chemical composition and water quality of ... from the National Science Foundation,s MacroSystems Biology program, researchers ... watershed, which begins in Canada and runs through five ...
(Date:4/22/2014)... RIVERSIDE, Calif. Inspired by the fist-like club ... by University of California, Riverside, in collaboration with University ... design structure for composite materials that is more impact ... , "The more we study the club of this ... improve so many things we use every day," said ...
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