Tag: "cranial" at biology news

Testing the force of a shark's bite

...ida, and led by Dr Stephen Wroe aims to reveal the cranial mechanics, bite force and feeding behaviour in the Great White Shark using high resolution 3-D computer simulations. Last week Dr Wroe and his team dissected the five year old shark and measured the structure of its jaw and the muscles used in biti...

Adult survivors of childhood leukemia exercise less, worsening high risk for obesity and illness

.... Furthermore, adult survivors of ALL who received cranial radiotherapy (CRT), or whole brain radiation, as children reported the lowest activity among all adults, suggesting that the type of therapy administered to a child may impair his or her physical activity in the future. To protect adult childhood ...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

... Polypterus as it fed. They then analyzed the same cranial junctions in several fossils -- the early amphibian Acanthostega, its fishy ancestor Eusthenopteron, and the extinct terrestrial amphibian Phonerpeton -- to determine how these bones may have moved relative to each other during feeding. By analyzing ...

New sucker-footed bat discovered in Madagascar

...ed on pelage coloration, external measurements and cranial characteristics, according to the researchers. Myzopoda are often found in association with broad-leaf plants, most notably Ravenala madagascariensis or the Travelers' Palm, a plant that is endemic to Madagascar but has been introduced to numerous tr...

Mysterious 'neural noise' actually primes brain for peak performance

...to one stored in your head. But the reality of the cranial world seems to be a confusing array of possibilities and probabilities, all of which are somehow, mysteriously, properly calculated. The science of drawing answers from such a variety of probabilities is called Bayesian computing, after minister Thom...

Study suggests evolutionary link between diet, brain size in orangutans

...tly exhibit the absolutely and relatively smallest cranial capacity," the researchers concluded. Although the researchers found reduced brain sizes in both male and female orangutans, the differences within the small group of animals studied were statistically significant only for the females, they noted. A...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...s and surviving motoneurons in the spinal cord and cranial nuclei. ...

New hominid species may be early version of Homo sapiens

... absence of a chin in the jawbone and a very small cranial capacity. In addition to LB1, fragments of eight other individuals were found, along with advanced stone tools. The initial conclusion was that H. floresiensis was a new species, a dwarf derived from Home erectus. In the current article, Professor ...

Rodent's bizarre traits deepen mystery of genetics, evolution

...even after close examination and analysis of their cranial structure; only genetic tests could reveal the difference. Nevertheless, voles are perfectly adept at recognizing those of their own species. "I have seen absolutely no evidence of mating between different species," Triant said. "We don't know how ...

No hobbits in this shire

...case was not normal." To study LB1's traits, 94 cranial features and 46 features of its mandible were comp... Two anatomical details, particular grooves in the cranial base singled out as "not seen in modern humans," in the 2004 new species announcement are, according...

Transmission rates of vCJD

...://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/proceedingsb Major cranial changes during triceratops ontogeny by Dr JR Horne... (doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3643) This is the first cranial ontogenetic assessment of Triceratops, the well-known Late Cretaceous dinosaur distinguished by thre...

Making a face: A new and earlier marker of neural crest development

...the one we have uncovered is related to the early, cranial neural crest cells, the only ones in higher vertebrates that retain bone and cartilage forming potential." ...

Scientists scuttle claims that 'Hobbit' fossil from Flores, Indonesia, is a new hominid

...nds to explain such a diminutive brain. "The tiny cranial capacity of LB1, which is smaller than in any othe... was the worst possible choice for this study. The cranial capacity turned out to be only 260 cc, just over half of that recorded for the LB1 skull, and is one...

Relationship of brain and skull more than just packaging

...it shares with evolutionary history a reduction in cranial elements and coincident changes in the shape of the skull and brain. The researchers believe that studying craniosynostosis could shed light on the joint evolution of the brain and skull. The two types of craniosynostosis the researchers studied wer...

Smallest Triceratops skull ever found provides clues to dinosaur's growth

... braincase as the animal matured recapitulates the cranial evolution of Triceratops from a more basal ancestor, such as Protoceratops. "The baby skull shows us how the bones that make up the skull actually grew and fit together, because we see the sutures and sutural surfaces, which were completely obliterat...

Early humans on the menu

...efore and those that came after. It shares dental, cranial and skeletal traits with both. It's also a very well-represented species in the fossil record. "Australopithecus afarensis was probably quite strong, like a small ape," Sussman says. Adults ranged from around 3 to 5 feet and they weighed 60-100 pound...

FSU biologist says new dinosaur is oldest cousin of Tyrannosaurus rex

...rences. Among them, in addition to its distinctive cranial crest, Guanlong was roughly 100 million years olde...y the end of its relatively long 13-year life. Its cranial crest would have reached its full size by then, thus providing an accurate model for scientists. The...

Duck-billed dino crests not linked to sense of smell

...ambeosaurs are easily recognizable for their large cranial crests, which contain elongated nasal passages and loop over their skull. Duck-billed dinosaurs are sometimes referred to as the "Cows of the Cretaceous period" and lived 85 million to 65 million years ago. Evans reconstructed the dinosaurs' brain ca...

Turn down that radio! Years of loud noise may lead to tumor

...lder. An acoustic neuroma tumor slowly presses the cranial nerve that is responsible for sensing sound and helping with balance. Symptoms include hearing loss and a constant ringing in the ears, or tinnitus. The study is currently in the online advance access edition of the American Journal of Epidemiology. ...

Birth defect gene identified

...s deletedTGF-beta in mice embryos, but only in the cranial neural crestcells that build facial bone and carti...esn't help us figure out the role thegene plays in cranial development," Chai said. The rest of the embryo's cells were allowed to retain the gene andgrew norm...

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