Tag: "enzyme" at biology news

Actin muscles in on DNA transcription

...he nucleus. Transcription occurs in the nucleus in enzyme factories composed of up to 100 proteins -- huge c...plex. Its job is to recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that will later detach itself from the complex and proceed on down the DNA string, stitching togethe...

Stress impairs thinking via mania-linked enzyme

An errant enzyme linked to bipolar disorder, in the brain's prefron... it activates PKC through a cascade of events. The enzyme then travels out to the cell membrane, opening ion channels that heighten the cell's excitability, a...

Cell enzyme may help suppress cancer development

COLUMBUS, Ohio A new study shows that an enzyme that normally alters the activity of other protein...lecules in cells may also help prevent cancer. The enzyme is known as PTPRO (for "protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O"). When the gene responsible fo...

Mayo researchers define celecoxib pathways and mechanisms for tumor reduction

... general family of drugs that target the COX-2, an enzyme that plays a major role in arthritis pain and inflammation. "This COX-2 inhibitor represents a strong option for treatment of breast cancers, and a preventative agent for treatment of individuals with high risk of developing breast cancer or disea...

Elevated inflammatory enzyme, Lp-PLA2, significantly linked to ischemic stroke

...w Orleans, LA, November 9, 2004 High levels of an enzyme lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)...rs compared to those with the lowest levels of the enzyme after taking age, gender and race into consideration (p <0.001). Even when traditional cardiova...

Drug may hinder recovery from heart attacks

...ti-inflammatory drug because of its effects on the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The work from the Casey laboratory indicates that the reported side-effects of celecoxib may result from their unintended inhibition of the body's ability to move bicarbonate. The work was headed up by principal researcher J...

Sperm enzyme is essential for male fertility, study shows

...arolina at Chapel Hill has determined that a novel enzyme in sperm is essential for sperm motility and male ...al and plant cells. The researchers focused on the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, or GAPDS, a novel enzyme in the glycolytic pathway that ...

New tool highlights activity of key cellular signal

...ad implications, says Zhang. For example, the main enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP is being targeted by drug companies for potential application in inflammation, allergy, asthma or chronic lung disease, conditions that may be helped by increasing cyclic AMP. More recently, altered regulation of cyclic AMP h...

Discovery reveals how the body regulates blood oxygen

...discovered that the oxygen-sensing molecule is the enzyme "hemoxygenase-2". Under normal conditions, this enzyme uses oxygen to generate carbon monoxide. Under low-oxygen conditions, the enzyme produces less carb...

New gene therapy promising for treating Fabry disease

...with Fabry disease either don't make enough of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A or improper synthesis means the enzyme isn't active enough," says Jeffrey Medin, a U of T associate professor in the Department of Medical ...

GlaxoSmithKline awards $250,000 in research grants for research on drug therapies for HIV/AIDS

...l viruses, allowing them to be inhibited by a host enzyme called RNase P. "Research by other scientists has suggested that the RNA of HIV has an IRES similar to those we have studied in other viruses, such as the one that causes hepatitis C. We have shown in our work that RNase P may inhibit gene expre...

JCI table of contents, November 15 2004

...th abnormalities on this chromosome either lack an enzyme called adenosine deaminase, or lack the ability to produce IL-2 receptor gamma chain, a molecule that T cells need to communicate with B cells. In some cases of SCID, doctors have been unable to identify the underlying cause. In the November 15 i...

New gene mutation found to cause 'bubble boy disease'

...th abnormalities on this chromosome either lack an enzyme called adenosine deaminase, or lack the ability to produce IL-2 receptor gamma chain, a molecule that T cells need to communicate with B cells. In some cases of SCID, doctors have been unable to identify the underlying cause. In the November 15 is...

IRCM scientist demonstrates basic active mechanism of immune-system cells

...") located in the cell, known as SAP; and FynT, an enzyme that is also located within the cell. Using mice with genetically mutated SLAM, SAP or FynT proteins, Dr. Veillette provided evidence of the importance of links among the three proteins. It should also be noted that SAP protein mutations occur in hum...

Researchers discover new way to boost grain crops' drought tolerance

...ns crops to drought by decreasing the amount of an enzyme that is responsible for producing the plant hormon... to farmers, the authors targeted ACC synthase, an enzyme required for the production of ethylene, screening thousands of plants for naturally occurring mutan...

Researchers discover defense mechanisms in some plants believed bred out by humans

...ation to study the specific interaction between an enzyme and another protein, both of which are believed to... young maize, it breaks the cell compartments. The enzyme beta-glucosidase breaks the DIMBOA-glucoside down into glucose and DIMBOA, and the DIMBOA is toxic t...

Acid-resistant bug doesn't give in to alcohol either

...es, which could make the organism a source for new enzyme products and new directions in protein chemistry. ... we're trying to answer the question: 'How is this enzyme different?'" That answer, Kappock said, could reveal many new important...

Visualizing the end of the human genome

...ellular aging. But cells also possess a unique enzyme known as telomerase that can lengthen telomeres by adding DNA to the ends of the chromosome using its own RNA template. In most cells, telomerase activity is very low after embryonic development, and regulation of telomerase is critical, because too ...

Psychological stress and disease: UCSF-led study suggests connection

...h of the tissues that cells form. Telomerase is an enzyme that replenishes a portion of telomeres with each ...were the case, drugs that activated the telomerase enzyme just enough to forestall over-shortening of telomeres might be administered. Co-authors of the study...

Improved molecular switch could serve as sensor, medical tool

...hat makes it easy to monitor. Beta-lactamase is an enzyme that can disable and degrade penicillin-like antibiotics. Maltose binding protein binds to a type of sugar called maltose that E. coli cells can use as food. In the previous experiments, the researchers used a cut-and-paste process to insert the b...

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(Date:10/14/2014)... is how to produce enough food to feed the ... Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that food ... to feed a growing global population, and plants are ... production. Plants—grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and more—feed humans ... must tap into our knowledge of how plants work ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... Montreal, October 14, 2014 – High doses of fish oil ... fibrillation, a common type of irregular heartbeat in which the ... The results of the AFFORD trial led by the Montreal ... American College of Cardiology on October 7th. , For ... antiarrhythmic therapy were randomly assigned to 4 grams of fish ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... – A team of scientists led by researchers ... and the University of Miami Miller School of ... key genetic pathway underlying bipolar (manic depressive) disorder, ... for treating bipolar affective disorder, as well as ... new findings, published online this week in Nature ...
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