Tag: "enzyme" at biology news

Scientists find missing enzyme for tuberculosis iron scavenging pathway

... Baker and his colleagues have discovered that the enzyme most likely plays an entirely different role in M. tuberculosis. "What the structure showed, when combined with careful analysis of the sequence, its neighbors in the genome, and the fact that its gene was also regulated by iron, was that Rv1347c w...

Researchers identify cause of 'early bird' sleep disorder

...nd gene suggests the change causes a protein -- an enzyme called a kinase that is made by the gene - to be less active than normal....

Natural tumor suppressor in body discovered by UCSD medical researchers

...of the human genome for a phosphatase, which is an enzyme that acts as a catalyst in regulating cellular processes by removing phosphate molecules. Based on the chemical components of Akt, they specifically looked for a phosphatase linked to the PH domain, a protein module found in a wide variety of chemic...

Balancing act at chromosome ends

...g aging and cancer. Telomeres are elongated by an enzyme called Telomerase (hTERT). Telomerase is generally only active in fetal, germ, and cancer cells; it is normally repressed in most somatic (body) cells. This new work by Dr. Chung and colleagues shows how cells keep telomerase activity in check, by id...

NASH clinical research network launches new trial for treatment of liver disease

...racteristics of the disease include abnormal liver enzyme levels, liver cell injury, inflammation and fibros... suggest that certain diabetes drugs improve liver enzyme levels and may slow or reverse the progression of NASH. Other pilot studies indicate that patients w...

Viagra shows selective effects in hypertensive pregnancy on mother, fetus

...hat Viagra (or other drugs that inhibit PDE-5, the enzyme that normally inhibits blood vessels' ability to expand) may have beneficial effects in hypertensive pregnancy and, possibly, preeclampsia. It is also intriguing that the benefits of Viagra were observed without any reduction in maternal blood pressu...

In asthma, it's not the drugs but the inflammation that increases cardiovascular risk, damage

...ation state by measuring stimulated release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Neutrophils isolated from asthmatic animals showed an enhanced rate of MPO release compared to those from control animals (substrate consumption rate of 1.52 + 0.3 h g/ sec vs. 0.29 + 0.08 h g/sec; p < 0.05). "The increased...

Researchers pioneer new gene therapy technique using natural repair process

...homologous recombination by introducing a man-made enzyme that recognizes and binds DNA at specific points i...ant IL-2R gene. Once bound to the mutant gene, the enzyme creates a break in the DNA sequence, initiating the recombination process. In SCID, as well as man...

Researchers identify potential therapeutic target for Huntington's disease

...s studying yeast cells have identified a metabolic enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for treating Hun...has been previously implicated in the disease. The enzyme functions in a metabolic pathway that is activated at early stages of the disease in people with Hun...

Protein tags regulate key ion channel

...oylation [SUE-mow-e-LAY-shun]. In this process, an enzyme attaches a small peptide called SUMO (for small ub... team first demonstrated that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme was plentiful at the plasma membrane, just inside the cell surface. They next showed that it added S...

Researchers improve design of genetic on-off switches

...erapy, metabolic engineering, functional genomics, enzyme engineering and animal disease model studies. Many previous attempts, using a variety of molecular methods, have involved time-consuming approaches that have resulted in unintended activity when non-targeted receptors have responded to the new molecu...

Structure-building cell signals also may influence learning, memory

...athway was triggered that ultimately stimulated an enzyme called synaptojanin-1. This enzyme is essential for a process known as cellular endocytosis, whereby certain chemicals, viruses or othe...

Mouse with designer liver has enhanced glucose tolerance and improved insulin response

...they found an elevated level of Akt/PkB kinase, an enzyme needed for insulin signaling, and elevated activity of IRS proteins. There was no activation of another enzyme, Erk, which is elevated in normal liver in reaction to insulin stimulation. Dr. Feng concluded that the function of Gab1 in normal liver c...

Mental retardation cause may include cell miscommunication

... babies born with PKU lack or are deficient in the enzyme that converts the amino acid phenylalanine into a usable form. The amount of the amino acid in the blood builds to toxic levels, ultimately causing severe brain disorders, including mental retardation and seizures. Researchers have been less clear o...

Ancient enzyme guides healthy eating in mammals

An ancient enzyme in the brains of mammals acts as an innate nutriti...Medicine, and his colleagues found in mice that an enzyme known as GCN2 kinase sets off a cascade of events that relays information to the brain about the ami...

Jeffrey Friedman, discoverer of leptin, receives Gairdner, Passano awards

...tem that controls body weight: they showed that an enzyme called SCD-1 works through leptin to signal the body to either store fat or burn it. The scientists believe that leptin acts in part by suppressing SCD-1's activity, which in turn activates a metabolic pathway that promotes the burning of fat. Last y...

Toxic flame retardant accumulates in dolphins

...somers of HBCD are metabolised by the animals. The enzyme complex cytochrome P450 in the liver plays an important role in this. This complex adds oxygen to the HBCD but it cannot react with the alpha isomer. This is due to subtle differences in the spatial structure of the alpha, beta and gamma isomer molec...

NYU chemist wins Watson Young Investigator award

...s. The key obstacle is a detailed understanding of enzyme function and an innovative and practical design strategy. Zhang intends to address this challenge by employing the emerging capabilities of modern computational methods, which would allow a greater understanding of the inner workings of enzymes....

Joining hands to solve a DNA replication problem

... protein T antigen (Tag) interacts with RPA and an enzyme known as DNA polymerase-primase (pol-prim). Tag is a helicase, or DNA unwinding enzyme. After it has unwound the DNA, it also places the pol-prim on the DNA to make primers. The researchers studied this last step: how Tag pulls RPA away sufficiently ...

PNAS highlights for the week of April 18 - 22

...vival and proliferation, is activated by c-Src, an enzyme implicated in tumor formation and metastasis. Rich...xifier Identified Researchers have found a brain enzyme that appears to break down and potentially detoxify a specific organophosphorus (OP) compound, which...

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