Tag: "euroscience" at biology news

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Attila Gulys-Kovcs, Heidi de Wit, Ira Milosevic, Olexiy Kochubey, Ruud Toonen, Jrgen Klingauf, Matthijs Verhage, and Jakob B. Srensen... , Munc18 binds the "closed" state of syntaxin1 and thus occludes binding of the SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin. However, Munc18 cannot be simply a negative regulator of exocytosis because vesicles fail to dock in its absence. To address this issu...

Neurosciences and music meet in Montreal

In the wake of the success of previous meetings in Venice in 2002 and Leipzig in 2005, the Fondazione Pierfranco e Luisa Mariani ONLUS announces the third edition of the Neurosciences and Music international conference which will be held in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) from June 26th to 28th, 2008. ... The upcoming meeting will be held in partnership with the BRAMS (International Laboratory for Bra...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ... Much has been written about the subunit composition of hippocampal NMDA receptors and their differential contributions to functions ranging from learning to neurodegeneration. Although NMDA receptors can be di-heteromeric, two NR1 subunits and two identical NR2 subunits, they can also be tri-heteromeric, containing NR1, NR2A, and NR2B subunits. Al- Hallaq et al. set out to examine recep...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Rhona Seijffers, Charles D. Mills, and Clifford J. Woolf ... Injury of peripheral axons results in a regenerative response from the central as well as the peripheral process of a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. This conditioning effect is mediated by altered transcription of multiple genes and involves both enhanced axonal growth and reduced inhibition by myelin. Seijffers et al. con...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Mu Sun, Mark J. Thomas, Rachel Herder, M. Lisa Bofenkamp, Scott B. Selleck, and Michael B. OConnor ... Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) has diverse functions in cell signaling from development to cell death. This week, Sun et al. focused on its possible role in synaptic plasticity by targeting the endogenous BMP antagonist chordin. The BMPRII receptor protein was expressed throughout the...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Benjamin K. Ng, Lian Chen, Wilhelm Mandemakers, Jos M. Cosgaya, and Jonah R. Chan... Although neurotrophic factors are usually considered to be target-derived secretory products that are then retrogradely transported to their site of action, this week Ng et al. provide more proof that BDNF can move in other directions. The authors examined the source of BDNF necessary for Schwann cell-media...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Qian Cai, Ping-Yue Pan, and Zu-Hang Sheng ... If you are planning to ship Piccolo, Bassoon, and a bit of N-cadherin and SNAP- 25, you will need some syntabulin, according to Cai et al. this week. Piccolo and its active zone (AZ) compatriots are transported by a complex, which includes syntaxin-1, the kinesin motor KIF5B, and the adaptor protein syntabulin. In fetal rat brains, vesicles conta...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... La Siksou, Philippe Rostaing, Jean-Pierre Lechaire, Thomas Boudier, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Anna Fejtov, Hung-Teh Kao, Paul Greengard, Eckart D. Gundelfinger, Antoine Triller, and Serge Marty... This week, Siksou et al. give us some close-up views of the cytomatrix in presynaptic terminals. To catch synaptic vesicles and particularly their filamentous network in the act, the authors immobilized...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Melissa R. Regan, Yanhua H. Huang, Yu Shin Kim, Margaret I. Dykes-Hoberg, Lin Jin, Andrew M. Watkins, Dwight E. Bergles, and Jeffrey D. Rothstein ... , Regan et al. used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenes to visualize the expression pattern of two glutamate transporters in mice, glutamateaspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). These two transport...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Judith Blanz, Michaela Schweizer, Muriel Auberson, Hannes Maier, Adrian Muenscher, Christian A. Hbner, and Thomas J. Jentsch... . This widely expressed chloride channel is activated by cell swelling, l...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Jason C. Dugas, Adiljan Ibrahim, and Ben A. Barres... was transiently upregulated right after oligodendrocytes differentiated. In a population of cells derived from a single proliferating OPC, p57<su...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Panayiotis Tsokas, Tao Ma, Ravi Iyengar, Emmanuel M. Landau, and Robert D. Blitzer... , Tsokas et al. dissected the signaling pathways that coordinate translation at the CA3CA1 synapse. Like LTP itself, translation required the coincident activation of two pathways. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enables translation of terminal oligopyrimidine messenger RNAs, which in turn...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Wolfgang Mittmann and Michael Husser... Purkinje cells provide the sole output of cerebellar cortex, thus serving as the final common pathway for cerebellar synaptic integration and plasticity. The cellular plasticity associated with cerebellar motor learning is thought to arise from long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory parallel fibers (PFs) triggered by simultaneous climbing fiber (CF)...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Tomomi Sato, Takanori Hamaoka, Hidenori Aizawa, Toshihiko Hosoya, and Hitoshi Okamoto. ... promoter. GFP labeled the ipsilateral (uncros...

Work starts for EuroScience Open Forum 2008 Barcelona

... ... ... ... <u...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Zejuan Sheng, Sue-Yeon Choi, Ajay Dharia, Jian Li, Peter Sterling, and Richard H. Kramer ... Rods and cones differ in their sensitivity and responses to light. Sheng et al. used comparative retinology to address these differences in tokay geckos, anole lizards, and salamanders. In the dark, rods and cones are depolarized and tonically release synaptic vesicles until light suppresses rel...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ... ... The abundant neurofilaments (NFs) of the cytoskeleton are polymers of light, midsize, and heavy subunits. Although once thought to move unidirectionally, NFs can move bidirectionally along microtubules in a start-and-stop pattern. This week, Millecamps et al. focused on the transport and turnover of light subunits (NF-L). They generated mice that conditionally expressed a transgene...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Nancy L. Urizar, Zhiyong Yang, Howard J. Edenberg, and Ronald L. Davis... to expression of the signaling protein Homer. Approximately 70% of wild-type flies were sedated (i.e. were motionless or had fallen on their back/side) after first exposure to ethanol vapor, whereas only 10% were sedated after a second exp...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ... ... The M-current, initially described by David Brown and Paul Adams in sympathetic ganglion neurons, regulates cell firing in many cell types. These potassium channels, composed of KCNQ2/3 heteromers, are low threshold and noninactivating, thus reducing action potential firing to sustained stimuli. As per the name, muscarine blocks M-current. This week, Crozier et al. examine the inter...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Alexandra Koschak, Gerald J. Obermair, Francesca Pivotto, Martina J. Sinnegger-Brauns, Jrg Striessnig, and Daniela Pietrobon... 1.2 as the pore-forming subunit of anomalous L-type calcium channels in neurons, a subclass of L-type channels that show long reopenings at negative voltages after a strong depolarization. These channels coexist with conventional L-type channels in rat cerebellar g...

NIH neuroscience microarray consortium launches high-throughput genotyping services

... The Consortium is comprised of four nationally recognized centers located at Duke University in Durham, NC, the Translational Genomics Research Instit...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Narender R. Gavva, Anthony W. Bannon, Sekhar Surapaneni, David N. Hovland Jr, Sonya Lehto, Anu Gore, Todd Juan, Hong Deng, Bora Han, Lana Klionsky, Rongzhen Kuang, April Le, Rami Tamir, Jue Wang, Brad Youngblood, Dawn Zhu, Mark H. Norman, Ella Magal, James J. S. Treanor, and Jean-Claude Louis ... For pain-sensing neurons, the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is a jack-of-all-trades being activated...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Subhojit Roy, Matthew J. Winton, Mark M. Black, John Q. Trojanowski, and Virginia M.-Y. Lee... This week, Roy et al. monitored traffic in the fast and slow lanes of axons. Proteins are transported to distal axons in three distinct groups: fast component (FC), slow component-a (SCa), and slow component-b (SCb). The well described FC and SCa mechanisms move vesicular and structural cargoes, r...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Nicolas Gervasi, Rgine Hepp, Ludovic Tricoire, Jin Zhang, Bertrand Lambolez, Danile Paupardin-Tritsch, and Pierre Vincent... Subcellular compartmentalization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) determines which substrates are phosphorylated at the membrane, cytosol, and nucleus. This week, Gervasi et al. chose two reporters to examine these signaling microdomains in thalamic neurons in...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Monica R. Metea, Paulo Kofuji, and Eric A. Newman ... . In a rat retina preparation, light s...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Jamie Maguire and Istvan Mody ... subunit expression in cycling mice. However, finasteride, which inhibits...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Hideki Hayashi, Robert B. Campenot, Dennis E. Vance, and Jean E. Vance... Apolipoprotein E (apoE), an apolipoprotein contained in lipoproteins secreted by CNS glia, is perhaps best known because its 4 allele is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. This week, Hayashi et al. outline a signaling pathway by which these apoE-containing lipoproteins can inhibit apoptosis. The authors...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ...Yuki Sato, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, and Yoshihiro Yoshihara ... Thanks to Buck and Axel and colleagues, most neuroscientists are aware of the precise topographical map of the mouse olfactory nerve projection in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single odorant receptor (OR), and OSNs expressing a given OR converge on a set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. This week, Sato...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Alberto Ramos, Wai Chi Ho, Stephanie Forte, Kathleen Dickson, Jacqueline Boutilier, Kristy Favell, and Philip A. Barker... The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), normally expressed at low levels in adult tissue, springs to life in times of crisis, such as brain injury, ischemia, and seizures, and facilitates neuronal apoptosis. Ramos et al. this week examined how the stress of cell swelli...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... David Gorczyca, James Ashley, Sean Speese, Norberto Gherbesi, Ulrich Thomas, Eckart Gundelfinger, L. Sian Gramates, and Vivian Budnik... neuromuscular junction, particularly the specialized, multilayered postsynaptic membrane called the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR). The authors used the guanylate kinaselike domain of the fly scaffol...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Henrik Alle and Jrg R. P. Geiger ... receptors using direct recording from mossy fiber boutons (MFBs) in rat hippocampal slices. Based on the single-channel conductance of currents evoked by exogenous GABA, the authors estimated that each MFB contained 20200 receptors. The receptors were not tonically active, presumably...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Christina H. Liu, Young R. Kim, Jia Q. Ren, Florian Eichler, Bruce R. Rosen, and Philip K. Liu... , Liu et al. coupled oligonucleotides to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), the latter being a sensitive contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. SPIONs are detectable as a signal reduction in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. The authors infused the brains of mice w...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Hideko Nishida and Shigeo Okabe ... Time-lapse imaging has revealed that virtually all aspects of neuronal migration and synaptic function involve dynamic interactions with surrounding glial processes. This week, Nishida et al. looked at the role of astrocyte-neuronal contact in the stabilization and maturation of dendritic spines. The authors used two-photon time-lapse imaging of cultured h...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Claudia S. Bauer, Robert J. Woolley, Anja G. Teschemacher, and Elizabeth P. Seward... PCRs), specifically H1 histamine receptors, regulate Munc131, a protein that binds diacylglycerol (DAG) and facilitates the priming of vesicles for release. istamine decreased current throu...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... ... (Kv) channels are activated by changes in the cell membrane potential, but phosphorylation of residues in the subunits can significantly alter the extent of activation. A recent mapping of the Kv2.1 channel, a member of the Kv family present on most hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons, identified not one, not two, but 16 such sites. This week, Misonou et al. looked at two of th...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Krish Chandrasekaran, Julie Hazelton, Yu Wang, Gary Fiskum, and Tibor Kristian... In the fictional Star Wars universe, the Jedi have in their cells microscopic organisms, called midichlorians, which enable them to communicate with the Force." Us humans are stuck with just plain mitochondria. Although not as flashy, these ancient organelles perform essential metabolic functions. This week, Ch...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Angela Ho, Wade Morishita, Deniz Atasoy, Xinran Liu, Katsuhiko Tabuchi, Robert E. Hammer, Robert C. Malenka, and Thomas C. Sdhof ... You can tell a lot about a protein by what it hangs out with. The three Mints (also called X11-like proteins) bind to multiple synaptic proteins, and knock-out studies have suggested that they may indeed be necessary in synaptic transmission. But different isof...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...gota A. Bir, Nomi B. Holderith, and Zoltan Nusser ... The tradition of quantal analysis of synaptic transmission, which began at the neuromuscular junction, is extended this week to the inhibitory synapse between cholecystokinin- expressing interneurons and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. Bir et al. first determined the quantal amplitude and the number of functional release sites from measu...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... Yu Mi Choi, Shin Hye Kim, Sungkwon Chung, Dae Yong Uhm, and Myoung Kyu Park... Most cells, including neurons, have developed multiple safeguards to keep internal calcium low; thus, calcium signals are usually restricted to areas near the source of calcium influx or of release from intracellular stores. In this issue, Choi et al. take a look at the topology of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calc...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...Diederik Moechars, Matthew C. Weston, Sandra Leo, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Ilse Goris, Guy Daneels, A. Buist, M. Cik, P. van der Spek, Stefan Kass, Theo Meert, Rudi D'Hooge, Christian Rosenmund, and R. Mark Hampson ... "If in doubt, knock it out" is a familiar strategy in neuroscience these days. As a case in point, this week, Moechars et al. report on mice lacking the vesicular glutamate t...
(Date:10/14/2014)... – Like discriminating thieves, prostate cancer tumors scavenge and ... body. But such avarice may be a fatal weakness. ... way to kill prostate cancer cells by delivering a ... destroys the diseased cells brimming with the mineral, leaving ... two drugs already commercially available for other uses, could ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... years since T. rex took its last ... is breathing life back into dinosaurs using high-powered computer ... has important implications for how dinosaurs used their noses ... of smell and cool their brains. , "Dinosaurs ... Jason Bourke, lead author of the new study published ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... One of the planet,s leading questions is how to ... increasingly variable climate. The Food and Agriculture Organization of ... 70% over the next 40 years to feed a ... of the necessary rise in food production. Plants—grains, ... by supporting livestock. Current research must tap into ...
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