Tag: "helix" at biology news

Molecule that helps DNA replicate may make good target for cancer therapy

...ation can begin, the two strands in the DNA double helix must be unwound. Next, multiple molecules of a certain protein attach to the strands to keep them from spontaneously sticking together again. Only then can the star of the show--DNA polymerase alpha, the enzyme complex that synthesizes new DNA strand...

Visualizing the end of the human genome

...cleotides at the very end extend beyond the double helix as a single-stranded DNA "tail." The telomeres of normal cells gradually become shorter and shorter with each cell division, a characteristic sign of cellular aging. But cells also possess a unique enzyme known as telomerase that can lengthen tel...

In Nature paper, scientists at U.Va. health system crack part of 'histone' code

...protein 'spool' around which the famous DNA double helix is folded. Now, researchers at the University of Virginia Health System have unraveled one mystery about what histones accomplish in the complex chemical cascade that determines the function of a cell in the body. Their findings are published in...

Why is the helix such a popular shape? Perhaps because they are nature's space savers

...ds between molecules. But that only answers how a helix is formed and not why they are that shape," said R... energy and takes up the least space is that of a helix with a geometry close to that found in natural helices. "It would seem that the success of the ...

Research may provide ways to inhibit cancer's ability to resist treatments

...eic acid, is a large molecule shaped like a double helix found primarily in the chromosomes of the cell nucleus and contains the genetic information of the cell. Once damaged, cells have developed biochemical responses to repair the damage; when they can't be repaired, cells die if the damage is too toxic....

Salk polio vaccine celebrates 50th anniversary

...James D. Watson, Ph.D., for identifying the double helix structure of DNA (with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins). Max Delbrck, Ph.D., for showing how genes direct normal development and mutations cause abnormal development (with Alfred Hershey and Salvador Luria). Development of vaccines came to be seen ...

Students to chat online with leading genome researchers for National DNA Day

...d the anniversary of the discovery of DNA's double helix in1953. The event is a collaboration of NHGRI, American Society of Human Genetics, Genetics Society of America, the Genetic Alliance and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. "As we embark on the genome era, we face an urgent need for a new gen...

Tamoxifen-like drug suggests new ways to selectively block estrogen

... of the estrogen receptor, a peptide spiral called helix 12, out of place. By shifting helix 12 to an odd spot, GW5638 disrupts the ways in which several other molecules that normally interact ...

ASU researcher fashions DNA to further advances in nanotechnology

...nces to musical acts. Now, the familiar DNA double helix is serving as a microscopic trellis in order to further advances in nanotechnology aimed at improving human health. Hao Yan, a researcher at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University and an assistant professor in ASU's Department of Chemist...

New gene associated with Fanconi anemia 'explains' hallmark chromosomal instability

...mes which unwind the two strands of the DNA double helix so that DNA synthesis can take place. And they knew from the scientific literature that BACH1 interacts with BRCA1 protein. "This is the first gene associated with Fanconi anemia that we have a defined function for," says Auerbach. "It interacts dir...

New look at DNA hints at origin of ultraviolet damage

...ars, Kohler said. Their work revealed that the DNA helix was composed of paired bases, and that discovery l...V damage is confined to one side of the DNA double helix or the other, then the undamaged side makes an easy template for the proteins to follow. But if both...

New tool to study elusive DNA structure could help reveal better understanding of cancer, diabetes

...d version of the human genome is a double-stranded helix of complementary bases: adenine binds to thymine and cytosine binds to guanine. "Our focus is on a different type of DNA structure, the 'G-quartet,' that arises from hydrogen bonds between guanines only," says Linda McGown, professor and chair of th...

Study points to molecular origin of neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease

... beta helix. Moreover, the tendency to form a beta helix increases as glutamine tract length becomes longer...lations, when the length is 25 glutamines, no beta helix forms. At 45, a large majority show beta helix formation," Dokholyan said. "And it appears that 37 g...

What mutations tell us about protein folding

...to a structurally consistent picture, in which the helix is fully formed in the transition state, but has not yet formed significant interactions with the β-sheet. In the future, the Max Planck researchers hope to construct complete transition states from mutational data. An important step is to identify t...

Sisyphean movement of motor proteins may help preserve DNA integrity

... scientists "should not immediately search for the helix that the enzyme unzips, but instead remember how Rep snaps back." In cells, single strands of DNA often occur when something is wrong, Ha said. The recycling action, he said, may represent a desirable function of the protein by keeping it engaged on ...

Discovering the first steps in transcription-coupled repair

...PII works by separating the two strands of the DNA helix opening what's called a "transcription bubble" -- and moving along the strand to be transcribed like an engine along a cog railway, copying the genetic information in the gene to create a length of messenger RNA as it goes. As the RNAPII engine trund...

Berkeley scientists get first detailed look at Dicer

...e possible to alter the length of a long connector helix within this domain to change the lengths of the resulting siRNA products. "One size does not fit all for Dicer, it makes dsRNA products that range from 21 to 30 base pairs in length or longer. We would like to see what happens when you take a natur...

Chromosome rearrangements not as random as believed

...DNA, and are prone to protrude from the DNA double helix in fragile structures called hairpins and cruciforms," said Hiroki Kurahashi, M.D., Ph.D., corresponding author of the paper. "The hairpins and cruciforms are weak points where the DNA can break and rearrange with DNA from other chromosomes." Chromos...

Evolution in action: Why some viruses jump species

...ouble-stranded DNA viruses need to have the coiled helix unwind in order to replicate. "Since they're DNA viruses and replicate with host-cell machinery, it was just assumed that we should see rates of mutation more on par with those of their hosts and other DNA viruses," said Shackelton. "Instead, we wer...

'Accelerated evolution' converts RNA enzyme to DNA enzyme in vitro

...ies on the one-to-one correspondence of the double helix pairing, transferring catalytic function is signif... who, along with James Watson uncovered the double helix structure of DNA, articulated in 1970, all known organisms operate according to the central dogma of...

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(Date:11/5/2014)... career to understanding the Earth,s climate and communicating ... deputy director and regional climatologist for the Western ... Redmond has more than three decades of experience ... data to the general public. , At its ... December 15-19, 2014 the American Geophysical Union (AGU) ...
(Date:11/4/2014)... 2014 – University of Utah engineers developed the first ... fuel produce electricity without needing to ignite the fuel. ... portable electronics, off-grid power and sensors. , A study ... American Chemical Society journal ACS Catalysis . , ... reaction between a fuel and an oxygen-rich source such ...
(Date:11/4/2014)... University School of Medicine announced today that it ... funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ... Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences; and Vice Chair of ... of Medicine will pursue an innovative global health ... to Assess Fetal Neurodevelopment.", Grand Challenges Explorations (GCE) ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Nevada climatologist to be honored at AGU Fall Meeting for lifetime of public outreach 2Jet-fueled electricity at room temperature 2Temple University School of Medicine receives Grand Challenges Explorations grant 2
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