Tag: "histone" at biology news

BU chemist to map DNA's surface, uncovering details that will show how structure abets function

...omatin has a complex structure -- it twists around histone proteins, turns upon itself, and, in general, is not an easily accessible item, especially for proteins that need to bind to it for transcription. It is known, however, that this structure is dynamic and that DNA spontaneously unwraps to allow prote...

Stowers researcher publishes DNA double-strand break repair discovery in Science

...andidate tumor suppressors including a specialized histone variant called H2A.X/v. H2A.X/v itself becomes phosphorylated by a DNA damage- recognizing factor in the proximity of DNA double-strand breaks. This finding raised the possibility that the complex, which was called the dTip60 complex, might specifica...

Discovery of first demethylase molecule, a long-sought gene regulator

...ny people didn't believe existed." The enzyme, a histone demethylase, removes methyl groups appended to histone proteins that bind DNA and help regulate gene activity. "Previously, people thought that histone met...

Solving the mechanism of Rett Syndrome

... of gene suppression, MeCP2 acts in concert with a histone deacetylase protein, HDAC1, and other proteins. Histones are proteins in chromatin equipped with little "tails" that, when attached to an acetyl group (CH3OH), relax to allow the chromatin structure to become open or less compacted. When acetyl group...

Scientists identify molecular events that drive cell senescence

...ladelphia. Dr. Adams and colleagues found that the histone macroH2A is specifically enriched in SAHF. Histones are proteins that are associated with chromatin structure. The researchers also demonstrated that HIRA and ASF1a, two known regulators of chromatin structure, play a key role in formation of SAHF. W...

In Nature paper, scientists at U.Va. health system crack part of 'histone' code

...s is a good example of how proteins respond to the histone code," explained study senior author Patrick Grant...ently emerged about how genes can be turned off by histone methylation and how abnormal chemical modification of histones may underlie the formation of certain...

Man and mouse share genome structures

...matin is composed of DNA spooled around bundles of histone proteins, and resembles a chain of beads which is ...st exciting to Bernstein is the unusual density of histone tags spread over the regions of genome containing the HOX genes, which are key regulators of develop...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

...ils of DNA around the histones are loosened or the histone molecules are altered, the genes become available for expression. It is the complex activity governing this process to which Ubp10 contributes. Enzymatic modifications to histones control DNA activation or silencing through the addition or removal o...

ASBMB Schering-Plough Award lecture to focus on histone modifications in transcription

...Brian Strahl will discuss the important roles that histone modifications play in DNA transcription when he re...Rad6, which is responsible for adding ubiquitin to histone 2B. Normally in cells, DNA is wrapped around an octamer of histones. When the cell is ready to expre...

Study finds enzyme activity promotes rare form of leukemia, offers potential target for new drugs

...tigates a group of enzymes that modifies five core histone proteins forming the molecular scaffold that helps...on, in which a methyl component is attached to the histone protein. "The prevailing model is that methylation on histones serves as a docking site," Zhang sai...

UCR chemist part of team identifying new areas of gene regulation

...the current team, discovered in 1991 that sites of histone acetylation, a modification of the protein, play a...ometry to show that acetylation at the core of the histone is associated with gene activation by attracting the protein string known as the SWI/SNI chromatin r...

Protein helps regulate the genes of embryonic stem cells

...form of chemical modifications on any of four core histone proteins that group together to provide a molecula...on, in which a methyl component is attached to the histone protein. The prevailing model is that methylation on histones serves as a docking site for proteins...

Novel combination overcomes drug-resistant myeloma cells

...ad Institute designed a drug, tubacin, that blocks histone deacetylase 6, an enzyme that is critical to the aggresome's ability to function. These highly promising results, wrote the researchers, "provide the framework for clinical trials designed to enhance sensitivity and overcome resistance to bortezomib ...

Heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe

...quent proteasome-dependent degradation may control histone methylation and heterochromatin formation," explains Dr. Peterson....

Molecular partners required for appropriate neuronal gene repression

...hile the enzyme was able to demethylate its target histone when the pair was in isolation, it was unable to do so when the histone was placed in the more complex and realistic setting of a nucleosome. They then coupled the enzyme w...

Study identifies protein's role in cell division

...ow Upf1 prevents the cell from making any unwanted histone proteins during the intervals between DNA synthese...e a cell divides, it has to replicate both DNA and histone proteins and then package the two together into chromosomes," Marzluff said. "That way, each of the ...

Study finds protein is required for human chromosome production

...called CPSF73 acts like scissors to cut strands of histone messenger RNA (mRNA) in the cell nucleus. This cutting action produces the mRNA needed to create histone proteins that combine with DNA to form chromosomes. Like all other proteins, histones are made when ...

The meiotic histone code

...ic analysis of the recently identified nucleosomal histone kinase, NHK-1. The authors generated NHK-1-mutant ...lting sterile female oocytes, determined that this histone kinase is necessary for disassembly of the synaptonemal complex, condensin loading, and the further ...

Not so different

...Steitz (Yale University) lend new insight into the histone pre-mRNA processing machinery, and reveal the surp... paper identifies the long sought-after factor for histone pre-mRNA processing what has simply been known as the "heat labile factor" (HLF) nearly 20 years a...

Delving deeper into the machinery of cocaine addiction

...rocess called "chromatin remodeling"--in which the histone proteins enfolding genes are chemically altered to...ation assays" to measure the effects of cocaine on histone proteins. This technique, they emphasized, makes it possible "to study such transcriptional mechanis...

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(Date:8/1/2014)... at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a ... in brown fat cells. , The study, which ... the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... fat thermogenesis," which is of great interest to medical ... also protect against diabetes. , "This finding offers new ...
(Date:7/31/2014)... In the United States, natural-gas production from shale ... since 2007. Yet scientists still do not fully ... according to a report in the journal ... As gas extraction continues to vastly outpace scientific ... various organizations and institutions, including Princeton University, concluded ...
(Date:7/31/2014)... Fla. --- By tracing nearly 3,000 genes to ... University of Florida scientists have created an extensive ... use large-scale, next-generation DNA sequencing. , Among ... closely related to small moths than to large ... butterflies evolved. The study also found that some ...
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