Tag: "latin" at biology news

Translating form into function

In the last 40 years, scientists have perfected ways to determine the knot-like structure of enzymes, but theyve been stumped trying to translate the structure into an understanding of function what the enzyme actually does in the body. This puzzle has hindered drug discovery, since many of the most successful drugs work by blocking enzyme action. Now, in an expedited article in NATURE, researc...

Regulating alternative splicing during neural development

... ... Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) is a well-known inhibitor of alternative splicing in various cell types. A neuronal version of PTB - called nPTB - is expressed solely in nerve cells, but its function...

Manipulating nature: Scientists query wildlife birth-control method

Australian scientists are raising concerns over the unpredictable nature of a contraceptive vaccine that aims to control populations of wild animals, such as rabbits and foxes. ...... Writing in the latest issue of the journal, Reproduction, UNSW genetics expert Professor Des Cooper warns that the immuno-contraception method is not fully effective and is manipulating natural reproduction in ways...

Cisplatin is more effective than carboplatin for treating nonsmall cell lung cancer

... Recent randomized studies have shown that the addition of platinum-based drugs to standard chemotherapy improves patient outcomes. Based on this data, new guidelines for treating advanced NSCLC recommen...

Fragile X syndrome -- A stimulating environment restores neuronal function in mice

... ... To understand the details of the neuronal pathology of Fragile X syndrome, the researchers studied mice in which the same gene that causes the disease in humans had been knocked out. The scientists performed a detailed analysis of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the prefrontal c...

Regulating Californian stem cell research, and more

... ... In November 2004, California voters approved $3 billion over 10 years for public funding of stem cell research through the CIRM. In their policy paper in PLoS Medicine, Geoffrey Lomax,...

Simulating human metabolism to find new diets to new drugs

... In a report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) made available on...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

... The researchers revealed a link between active thyroid hormone in the brain and increases in an "uncoupling" protein (UCP2) that boosts the number of power-generating mitochondria in neurons that drive hunger. The increase in mitochondria, in turn, allows the brain's hunger center...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

... Gary Karpen and Jamy Peng, researchers in the Life Sciences Division of the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have now discovered two pathways that regulate the organization of the nucleolus and other features of nuclear architecture, maintaining genome stabilit...

Movies reveal that the process of insulating nerves is surprisingly dynamic

... Instead of red, white or black plastic, however, the wiring in the nervous system is protected by layers of an insulating protein called myelin. These layers increase the speed that nerve impulses travel throughout the brain and the body. The critical role they play is dramatically illustrated by the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, which is caused by lesions that destroy myelin. These inclu...

HHMI awards $19 million to Latin American, Canadian scientists

... The competitive awards recognize the accomplishments and promise of biomedical researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. They also help build the research capacity of countries that have a strong tradition of science but insufficient resources to adequately support world-class research, by supporting scientific leaders and strengthening t...

EU grants 2.5 million euros for research on childhood gut infections in Latin America

Diarrhoea due to gut infections is a world-wide problem causing about 12,500 deaths/day in children less than 5 years old. Our knowledge about bacterial and parasitic infections causing diarrhoea is limited. Tools for diagnosis and surveillance of many gut infections are inadequate. Leading experts from four European countries and five Latin American countries have teamed up to investigate the e...

Cell-regulating gene may predict survival outcomes for breast cancer patients

... Using mouse models, in vivo and in vitro tests revealed that the overexpression of a cell-regulating gene called cyclin D1 may actually be advantageous for some breast cancer patients because it sup...

Special Science issue examines HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean

... Over the course of nine months, Cohen traveled to 12 countries in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, visiting clinics, brothels, laboratories, shooting galleries, ministries of health, gay sex...

Gene-regulating enzyme is also a target for anti-depressive drugs

(Philadelphia) In 2005, professor Ramin Shiekhattar, Ph.D., at The Wistar Institute and his colleagues reported details about an enzyme involved in appropriately repressing sets of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. ...... At the time, the scientists noted that the enzyme appeared to fit into the same extended enzyme family that includes monoamine oxidases, psychoactive enzymes that oxidize d...

Protein's role in regulating cell death sets direction for cancer research

KINGSTON, Ont. A protein called calpain can be the key either preventing or promoting the cell death, a Queen's University study has found. ...... "This work provides proof in principle that pharmacological inhibition of calpain may be used to block cell death in situations where this is not desirable, such as in neuronal cells of Alzheimer's or Parkinson's patients, but to promote cell death in...

Robots manipulating animal behaviour

Little larger than a thumbnail, the cubic insect-like robots or 'insbots' are technological marvels. Developed under the European Commission's Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) initiative of the IST programme as the project Leurre, the insbots are fitted with two motors, wheels, a rechargeable battery, several computer processors, a light-sensing camera and an array of infrared proximity sen...

Scientists discover new regulating mechanism in cells

COLUMBUS, Ohio Researchers here have discovered a new mechanism used by cells and manipulated by retroviruses to control the making of certain essential proteins, including some involved in cancer. ...... The mechanism uses an enzyme called RNA helicase A (RHA), which is made by the cell. ...... The study by researchers with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Arthur G. Jame...

Discovery points to more effective ways of regulating cell signalling

A discovery made at The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute provides new insights into enhancing the function of the protein SOCS3, which regulates the response of cells to external stimuli....... SOCS3 (Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling) controls the responses of cells to cytokines (growth factors). It is important that cytokine signalling is properly regulated within the human body. If SOCS3 permi...

Circulating endothelial microparticles lead to heart valve disease

Under normal physiological conditions, low levels of microparticles are continually being shed into the blood from the endothelium the cells that line the inside of blood vessels and some organs and appear to cause no problems. But during some diseases, the level of endothelium-derived microparticles circulating in the blood rises. Now, researchers from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwau...

Light activated anticancer drug targeted to DNA using cisplatin like sub-units

One of the most effective chemotherapy drugs against cancer is cisplatin because it attaches to cancer DNA and disrupts repair. However, it also kills healthy tissue. Many scientists are creating alternative drugs or cisplatin analogs in attempts to find treatments without side effects. One approach to analog development is light activated drugs, or photodynamic therapy (PDT). Now a Virginia Tech...

Manipulating single cell receptor alters animal behavior

Researchers at the University at Buffalo and the University of Pennsylvania were the first to demonstrate that two intracellular events, both stimulated by the same cell receptor, can provoke different behaviors in mammals....... The broad implication of the findings may alter the way behavioral neuroscientists think about sub-cellular underpinnings of mammalian behavior, according to the researc...

Study of Latina women and children finds large variation in susceptibility to pesticides

Berkeley -- Some newborns may be 26 to 50 times more susceptible to exposure to certain organophosphate pesticides than other newborns, and 65 to 130 times more sensitive than some adults, according to a new study by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Washington....... The study, to be published Thursday, March 2, in the journal Pharmacogenetics and Gen...

Role of the nervous system in regulating stem cells discovered

New study by Mount Sinai researchers may lead to improved stem cell therapies for patients with compromised immune systems due to intensive cancer therapy or autoimmune disease. The study is published in this week's issue of Cell.... ...A group, led by Paul Frenette, Associate Professor of Medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, found that the sympathetic--or "fight or flight" branch--of the...

VCU Massey Cancer Center researchers identify a new class of anti-cancer drugs based on platinum

Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University's Massey Cancer Center have created a new platinum-based, anti-cancer agent able to overcome acquired drug resistance by first modifying the way it is absorbed into cancer cells and then attacking the DNA of those cancer cells. ...... The findings may help researchers design a new generation of anti-cancer drugs that selectively target cancer cells,...

Regulating gene expression STAT

In the December 15th issue of G&D, Dr, Michael Snyder and colleagues (Yale University) explore transcription factor binding under different cell activation conditions. The authors used a ChIP-chip approach to map out STAT1 and STAT2 binding sites along the human chromosome 22 after IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma stimulation. They found that STAT1 displays stimulus-dependent binding activity: While 52 bin...

Low-income pregnant Latinas drink despite universal alcohol-warning messages

... Language and cultural differences may discourage some women from drinking alcohol, but may also present a barrier for others to understand the risks of drinking during pregnancy. ... Researchers have found that low-income pregnant Latinas drink similar amounts of alcohol during the three months before recognition of a pregnancy as do other racial/ethnic groups.... ...Although numerous public...

Stimulating the brain makes the fingers more sensitive

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as an intriguing technique for exploring brain function, and a promising, though still unproven, form of therapy. This week, in the open-access journal PLoS Biology, Hubert Dinse and colleagues show that a short course of rTMS can increase finger sensitivity for up to two hours after treatment ends, and that this change corresponds...

El Carmen the first wilderness designation in Latin America

Anchorage Alaska (October 1, 2005) CEMEX, Agrupacin Sierra Madre, Conservational International (CI), The Wild Foundation, Birdlife International and Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas announced today the first Wilderness Designation in Latin America. The New El Carmen Wilderness Area is located in Northeastern Mexico, adjacent to the Big Bend National Park in Texas. The Sierra del...

Mechanism regulating tooth shape formulation found

One of the remaining challenges for evolutionary developmental studies of mammals, whose evolution is best known from their teeth, is how their tooth shape is altered during development. Researchers of the University of Helsinki together with their Japanese colleagues from the University of Kioto now propose a 'balance of induction' mechanism directing the placement of tooth shape features called...

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls

Scientists at New York University School of Medicine report in a new study that they have identified the molecular switch that turns on the production of myelin, the fatty insulation around nerve cells that ensures swift and efficient communication in the nervous system. The study, published in the September 1, 2005, issue of the journal Neuron, may provide a new avenue for treating nervous syste...

Research casts doubt on circulating stem cells

.... Adult stem cells taken from bone marrow are the "shooting stars" of their field. Many research scientists have been speculating that the cells might be able to pass through the blood into diseased organs and replace defective tissue. Such cells are seen as the potential key to the treatment of certain muscle diseases. However, a study currently being conducted at Bonn's University Clinic ha...

Circulating stem cells play small role in lung repair

HOUSTON July 27, 2005 -- Circulating stem cells play a minor role in repairing lung damage, according to a team of scientists who used male and female chromosomal differences to analyze the repair process in lung transplant patients....... , lead author Dani Zander, M.D., of The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, and colleagues at the University of Florida College of Medicine found t...

Regulating cell shape in mycobacteria

Dr. Robert Husson and colleagues have found two serine threonine kinase genes (pknA and pknB) that regulate cell shape, and possibly cell division, in the bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The researchers identified three in vivo substrates of PknA and PknB, one of which (Wag31) is an important factor in controlling bacterial cell division and cell shape. Overexpression of either P...

Researchers discover gene that determines asthma susceptibility by regulating inflammation

Disruption of a single gene, Nrf2, plays a critical role in determining the susceptibility to asthma. A research team led by Shyam Biswal, PhD, at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found the absence of Nrf2 exacerbated allergen-mediated asthma in mice models. The study's findings, published in the July 4, 2005, edition of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, may hold therapeuti...

Fighting malaria by manipulating mosquitoes' sense of smell

Combating the spread of malaria by manipulating the mosquitoes' sense of smell is the object of an ambitious research project, led by Vanderbilt University, that has been selected to receive $8.5 million as part of the Grand Challenges to Global Health. ... The initiative, which was launched by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has just announced the selection of 43 "groundbreaking" research...

Depression gene may weaken mood-regulating circuit

A brain scan study suggests that a suspect gene may increase susceptibility to anxiety and depression* by weakening a circuit for processing negative emotion. People with the depression-linked gene variant showed less gray matter and weaker connections in the mood-regulating circuit. How well the circuit was connected accounted for nearly 30 percent of their anxious temperament, researchers at th...

Cholesterol-regulating protein maintains fat-storage, fat-burning balance

DALLAS April 12, 2005 A protein that regulates cholesterol levels in the body also is responsible for maintaining a healthy balance between fat storage and fat burning, according to a UT Southwestern Medical Center study that may lead to new drug targets in the fight against obesity.... In animals and humans, a protein called the liver X receptor, or LXR, senses cholesterol levels. When these...

Breakthrough isolating embryo-quality stem cells from blood

A major breakthrough in stem cell research a new tool that could allow scientists to harvest stem cells ethically - will be announced at the Institute of Physics' conference Physics 2005 in Warwick later today (Tuesday 12th April). ...... Professor Josef Ks and Dr Jochen Guck from the University of Leipzig have developed a procedure that can extract and isolate embryo-quality stem cells from adu...

UK physics conference to reveal breakthrough isolating stem cells from blood

A major breakthrough in stem-cell research; the world's most sensitive test for cancer; and a new understanding of the critical role black holes played in the evolution of the universe will be among the latest research being presented by the world's top scientists at the Institute of Physics conference Physics 2005 in Warwick next week (10-14th April 2005)....... ...... ...A major breakthrough in...
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Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Wearable Technology Products Demand Highly Accurate Biometric Technology 2Biometrics Market in Japan 2014-2018: Key Vendors are DDS, Fujitsu, Hitachi and NEC 2Tute Genomics Raises $2.3 Million to Scale Up Cloud-Based Genome Analytics and Accelerate Personalized Medicine 2Tute Genomics Raises $2.3 Million to Scale Up Cloud-Based Genome Analytics and Accelerate Personalized Medicine 3
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