Tag: "mitochondria" at biology news
Abnormal fat metabolism underlies heart problems in diabetic patients
...oducing cell structures called mitochondria. When mitochondria
lose a lot of their cardiolipin, they malfunction. Their malfunction not only interferes with the energy supply of heart muscle cells, it also increases the amount of damaging oxygen-containing substances in the cells, creating unhealthy conditions t...
Scientists show that mitochondrial DNA variants are linked to risk factors for type 2 diabetes
... The researchers then obtained DNA sequences from mitochondria
of both rat strains, and found DNA variants in genes that encode for proteins involved in energy production. Thus, for the first time, they were able to directly link inherited variation in the mitochondrial genome to metabolic markers for type 2 di...
Strains of laboratory mice more varied than previously thought
...ences (NIEHS). In testing the Y chromosomes and mitochondria
for ancestry, the researchers found that the mouse strains were not offspring of their the putative fathers and mothers. The researchers concluded that the NIEHS data set, despite its exceptional size, density and qualitycaptures only a fraction o...
A new brake on cellular energy production discovered
...le to keep warm, move and even survive is that the mitochondria
- the cells' power stations - release the right amounts of energy. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have now identified the first known factor that acts as a brake on cellular energy production. Mitochondria release energy through a process know...
Tracing Parkinson's lethal mechanism
...e reactive oxygen species that are produced inside mitochondria
in the process of generating energy for the cell. Specifically, the researchers found that treating neurons with MPTP activates Cdk5 to switch off Prx2. Whats more, they found that activating Prx2 in MPTP-treated mice prevented the loss of dopamine...
Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death
... During apoptosis, the membrane covering the cells mitochondria
develop holes and leak a molecule called cytochrom... prevent CICD by supporting the functioning of the mitochondria
and triggering the activity of certain genes that prevent or repair cell damage. The findings also s...
Exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle
...iles involved age-specific mitochondrial function; mitochondria
act as the "powerhouse" of cells. Multiple studies have suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the loss of muscle mass and functional impairment commonly seen in older people. The study was the first to examine the gene expression pr...
Cancer cells 'reprogram' energy needs to grow and spread, study suggests
...pread throughout the body. Although changes in mitochondria
have been described in many cancers, the Hopkins s...tch and forced kidney cancer cells to start making mitochondria
again, the cells produced increased amounts of free radicals, which can cause cells to stop dividing...
First research to show that diabetes damages DNA in men's sperm and may affect fertility
..., energy-generating structures in the cells called mitochondria
(4 versus 3). Dr Ishola Agbaje, who undertook th...st report of the quality of DNA in the nucleus and mitochondria
of sperm in diabetes. Our study identifies important evidence of increased DNA fragmentation of nucl...
MNI researchers find a new role for mitochondria in cellular copper regulation
...nzymes including cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the mitochondria
-the energy suppliers of the body. "Our study is the first to characterize an unexpected cell-signaling or messenger role for the two copper-carrying proteins, SCO1 and SCO2, which are necessary for the assembly of COX," says Shoubridge. To chara...
Adult stem/progenitor cells repair of damaged brain, pancreas, kidney cells newly understood
...sfer mitochondrial DNA to local cells in which the mitochondria
(the energy of the cell) is not working. Better understanding of the different mechanisms of these stem/progenitor cells suggests multiple strategies for developing new therapies for a broad range of diseases, says Dr. Prockop. It also may help make ...
Highlighted sessions of ASBMB's 2007 Annual Meeting
...gy, Pasadena, will describe how the dysfunction of mitochondria
in neurons can lead to a neurodegenerative disease called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In particular, he will show the role of mitochondrial proteins called microfusins in this disease. Topic: Drug-Resistant Bacteria Session: Antibiotics for ...
Deactivating protein may protect nerve fibers in MS
...ium overload. "What we've done is make it so the mitochondria
can tolerate higher loads of calcium before they die," Forte said. "The mutant mice are protected from axonal damage associated with this MS-like disease in mice." The scientists are now testing drugs that could be used to shut down the cyclophilin...
News tips from the Journal of Biological Chemistry
...ealed Researchers report new details about how mitochondria
divide during cell division, providing new insight...de and fuse with each other. During cell division, mitochondria
divide as well, but how this happens is not well understood. Katsuyoshi Mihara and colleagues sho...
Need oxygen? Cells know how to spend and save
... Too little oxygen threatens life by compromising mitochondria
that power it, so when oxygen is scarce, cells app...ee radicals" that can damage or destroy cells. The mitochondria
are designed to produce energy without excess free radical production at normal oxygen levels. S...
Glucose triggers brain cell death in rats after hypoglycemic coma
... for this enzyme. "It is well-established that mitochondria
can be a source of oxidative stress," says Swanson. "But in this setting, oxidative stress comes from an entirely different source." He adds that the normal role of NADPH oxidase in the brain is "completely unknown." The authors also found that the...
News tips from ACS Chemical Biology
...ondria. This may yield insight into the role that mitochondria
play in such processes as apoptosis. About insight into diseases like psoriasis and basal cell carcinoma by developing an artificial way to induce keratinocytes, a type of skin cell precursor, to differentiate. ...
Harvard and U. Pittsburgh researchers explain carbon monoxide's anti-inflammatory effects
...own molecular engines, mitochondria. Specifically, mitochondria
react to low levels of carbon monoxide by releasing chemical signals that reduce or shut down the bodys inflammatory response, raising the possibility for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies, one of which may be low levels of inhaled c...
All roads lead to GUN1
... some of the responsibility. Yet, chloroplasts and mitochondria
contain thousands of imported proteins, which need...r, in which the breakdown in communication between mitochondria
and the nucleus contributes to the progression of tumors. The green chlorophyll in chloroplasts ab...
Nutrients might prevent hearing loss, new animal study suggests
...e-induced hearing loss occurs in part because cell mitochondria
in the ear churn out damaging free radicals in response to loud sounds. "Free radical formation bursts initially, then peaks again during the days after exposure," explains Le Prell. The antioxidant vitamins and magnesium used in the study are wid...
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