Tag: "mitochondrial" at biology news

Type 2 diabetes: Problems in the furnace

...le who are prone to develop diabetes have signs of mitochondrial dysfunction," Shulman said in an interview. This i..., lean older individuals have a major reduction in mitochondrial energy production that leads to accumulation of fat inside muscle cells resulting in insulin resista...

New protein vital for immune response is found in surprise location

...energy required for daily life. "This is the first mitochondrial protein known to be involved in immune defense against any microbial infection," said Dr. Zhijian "James" Chen, associate professor of molecular biology at UT Southwestern and the study's senior author. "This discovery puts mitochondria on the map in...

Cellular power plants also fend off viruses

...arch yielded a protein, which they called MAVS for mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Their experiments revealed th...D domain and another domain that anchors it to the mitochondrial membrane. Studies using fluorescent tracers revealed that MAVS was present in the mitochondria of ce...

Breast cancer risk increased for African-Americans with mitochondrial DNA variant

...LPHIA--African-American women who carry the 10398A mitochondrial DNA allele are 60 percent more likely to develop i... notion that variations in the genetic sequence of mitochondrial DNA are underappreciated factors in breast carcinogenesis," said Jeffrey Canter, M.D., M.P.H., of th...

High doses of vitamin E boost rat survival rate 40%; brain function, neuromuscular gains

...tamin E supplementation offset various measures of mitochondrial function loss in a range of 37%-66% at the 52- and...roves survival, neurological performance and brain mitochondrial function in aging male mice" appears online in the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integr...

Embryonic stem cells accrue genetic changes

... In addition to probing changes in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and copy numbers, the researchers ex... batch. Two of the nine lines had changes in their mitochondrial DNA over time, and all nine stem cell lines exhibited some shift in methylation of at least one of t...

Secrets of the whale riders

...sequence of the genetic components in a particular mitochondrial gene, and then built family trees to show the relationships among whale lice. The same three whale louse species Cyamus ovalis, Cyamus gracilis and Cyamus erraticus were thought to infest each of the three different species of right whale. But th...

How a zebra lost its stripes: Rapid evolution of the quagga

... existing zebras with related extinct species. The mitochondrial DNA markers from 13 museum specimens, including the only skeleton in museum collections, which is at Yale's Peabody Museum of Natural History, showed that quagga likely diverged from Plains zebra about 120,000 to 290,000 years ago during the Ice Age....

Study in Royal Society journal on first observation of giant squid in the wild

...tive forest "refuges". We studied the evolution of mitochondrial DNA in ithomiine butterflies of the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. DNA evolves gradually, according to an approximate molecular clock, and DNA evolution therefore reveals the time-course of evolution. Our study shows that rainforest refuges, if they ev...

Evolutionary conservation of a mechanism of longevity from worms to mammals

...ntial cofactor in numerous redox reactions such as mitochondrial respiration. Though lack of the mclk1 gene results in embryonic lethality, the authors were able to study mclk1-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells and show that they are resistant to oxidative stress and exhibit reduced DNA damage when compared to ES cell...

Mitochondrial biology gets a new chaperone

...is one of the most common defects in patients with mitochondrial disease. The deficiency results from a failure to ... of complex I." TITLE: A molecular chaperone for mitochondrial complex I assembly is mutated in a progressive encephalopathy AUTHOR CONTACT: Eric Shoubridge Mon...

JCI table of contents October 3, 2005

...is one of the most common defects in patients with mitochondrial disease. The deficiency results from a failure to ... of complex I." TITLE: A molecular chaperone for mitochondrial complex I assembly is mutated in a progressive encephalopathy AUTHOR CONTACT: Eric Shoubridge M...

JCI table of contents November, 2005

...ia. The authors show that PVL creates pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore the apoptosis detected in vivo in patients who died from necrotizing pneumonia suggests that apoptosis could be directly involved in the pathology of necrotizing pneumonia. This is important since S. aureus necrotizing pn...

Nine minority physiology grad students each get $18,000 Porter Fellowship from APS

..., these two PKC variations are activated and alter mitochondrial calcium signaling which contributes to apoptosis. Kristy M. Nicks University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Ms. Nicks studies Inhibin, the gonadal hormone that stimulates the skeleton to increase bone mass and strength and protects the bone agai...

Picky female frogs drive evolution of new species in less than 8,000 years

...rn mothers, judging by the absence of any southern mitochondrial DNA, which is contributed only by the mother. Hoskin and colleagues argue that because southern females have the most to lose in such cross-breeding, there may have been selection pressure to evolve a mating strategy to minimize dead-end mating with ...

Earliest European farmers left little genetic mark on modern Europe, Science study finds

...his was a surprise. I expected the distribution of mitochondrial DNA in these early farmers to be more similar to t...estry of modern Europeans, the researchers studied mitochondrial DNA from early farmers in Central Europe. Mothers pass mitochondrial DNA to their offspring primaril...

Why children of parents with type 2 diabetes are at risk themselves

EDITOR'S PICK The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of insulin resista...pring of parents with type 2 diabetes have reduced mitochondrial function. But the precise role of this decreased function in relation to insulin resistance and typ...

JCI table of contents December, 2005

...hns Hopkins University describe how failure of the mitochondrial network at the muscle-cell level leads to differen...lain post-ischemic arrhythmias, in which disturbed mitochondrial function in clusters of cells in the reperfused heart leads to regional current sinks that prevent p...

DNA barcodes put to the test

... barcode consists of just over 600 base pairs of a mitochondrial gene called cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). After ten years of collecting and sequencing cowries from around the world, Meyer and Paulay assembled a database of over 2,000 cowrie COI sequences from 218 species. To capture the full range of within...

Lost neurons affect energy balance

...r birth. They selectively deleted the gene for the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in Pomc- or Agrp-expressing neuronal cells. By six months old, the researchers report, the engineered mice had lost many of their Pomc or Agrp neurons but no other neurons. Like aging humans, mice in which Pomc neuron...

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(Date:10/17/2014)... release is available in German . ... a very few drugs. When treating overdoses, doctors are often ... especially difficult if there is a combination of drugs involved. ... and accidentally swallows his grandmother,s pills? ETH professor Jean-Christophe Leroux ... to find an answer to this question. "The task was ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... have challenged conventional thinking on how the bowel lining ... for how bowel cancer starts. , The researchers produced ... regenerating the ,crypts, that are a feature of the ... in bowel cancer development, a controversial finding as scientists ... Using 3D imaging technologies, Dr Chin Wee Tan and ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... 16, 2014 NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... biometric authentication company focused on the growing mobile commerce ... including Wocket™, the Smart Wallet, at the 13 th ... a leading global conference on the intersection of technology ... Mark Anderson , founder and publisher of the Strategic ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Emergency aid for overdoses 2Emergency aid for overdoses 3Cryptic clues drive new theory of bowel cancer development 2NXT-ID Inc. to Present at 13th Annual FiRe Conference 2NXT-ID Inc. to Present at 13th Annual FiRe Conference 3
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