Tag: "organisms" at biology news
New comparative toxicogenomics database
...curated molecular and toxicology data from diverse organisms
for scientists worldwide. "It is becoming increasingly well accepted that many diseases involve interactions between environmental factors and genes. We integrate key data from diverse species, such as gene sequences, chemicals, and references, to pr...
Book explores impact of viruses on evolution
... to the fitness landscape, often determining which organisms
will survive," says author Luis P. Villarreal of the University of California, Irvine, in his preface. "Viruses are an inherent and, I would suggest, essential ingredient in the web of life. It is time to acknowledge and study the role of viruses i...
The simple truth: Animal development not as complicated as it seems
...contrast the developmental complexity of different organisms
based on their sequences of cell divisions, known ...uter-generated ones, but instead showed that these organisms
took fewer "different steps" to fully mature than predicted by chance. In other words, the developm...
Anti-seizure drugs slow aging in worms
... elegans, they also plan to use the worms as model organisms
to investigate how the drugs inhibit seizures in epileptic patients, a mechanism that currently is not well understood. Such research could lead to more effective treatments for epilepsy....
Sinking coastlines may precede large subduction zone quakes
... by a temporary change in the types of microscopic organisms
with shells specifically foraminifera and thecamoebians in the mud, as the formerly freshwater marshes sink and become brackish or saltwater marshes. One marsh in Alaska apparently sank about half a foot starting perhaps 15 years before the devasta...
UCI researchers create new technique for speeding development of vaccines
...rorist threat against smallpox and other dangerous organisms
that terrorists can use as weapons. "The existing live-virus vaccine against smallpox produces unacceptable side effects such as allergic reactions, sores, heart inflammation and angina," Felgner said. "For a vaccine to be an effective defense again...
Scientists find missing link between whale and its closest relative, the hippo
...isserie said, referring to scientists who classify organisms
based on their physical characteristics or morphology. "Cetaceans are artiodactyls, but very derived artiodactyls." The origin of hippos has been debated vociferously for nearly 200 years, ever since the animals were rediscovered by pioneering French...
Yellowstone microbes fueled by hydrogen, according to U. of Colorado study
... that sulfur is the main source of energy for tiny organisms
living in thermal features. "It was a surprise to...no sediment, Spear collected samples of planktonic organisms
by hanging a glass slide in the water and allowing the microbes to accumulate. "Bacteria are just l...
Interaction between stem cells and their niches key to differentiation
... involved in the development stem cells in diverse organisms
in both animal and plant kingdoms. pum- and bam-like genes also exist in mammals and humans. "In our experiments we demonstrated that piwi and bam proteins are expressed independently of each other in reciprocal patterns in germline stem cells and...
It came from the sea: 'Monster' crabs evolve a bug's nose
...trates how similar needs of very distantly related organisms
may cause similar end results....
How many comparative genomes are enough?
..., geneticists eagerly began discussing which other organisms
to sequence -- partly to see which DNA regions are...ved DNA. Also, the more closely related a group of organisms
is in evolutionary terms, the more comparisons need to be made to tell if a given DNA region is cons...
A bug's life: aging and death in E. coli
such as bacteria age? The assumption has been that cells that divide symmetrically do not age and are functionally immortal. In a study published in the premier open-access journal PLoS Biology Eric Stewart and colleagues have now overturned this i...
Fleshing out the genome
...enome but also to compare the genomes of different organisms
and their evolutionary relationship. The new tools and approaches offer the most-comprehensive-to-date "functional annotation," a way of assigning the mystery sequences biological function and ranking them based on their similarity to genes known to...
Circles of DNA might help predict success of stem cell transplantation
...ainst their designated target. Specific infectious organisms
or other foreign substances stimulate T cells to divide and multiply in order to form an attacking army. However, the sjTRECs don't multiply when the original T cells divide and multiply. Instead, the more T cells that are produced in the blood as th...
Examination of internal 'wiring' of yeast, worm, and fly reveals conserved circuits
...s first-of-its-kind analysis of three higher level organisms
published in the February 8 issue of Proceedings ...o date, so when we open up the hood of these three organisms
we actually have selective and poor vision," said Ideker. "Nevertheless, when we found protein inter...
Family trees of ancient bacteria reveal evolutionary moves
...line (salt crust) environments. Cyanobacteria are organisms
that gave rise to chloroplasts, the oxygen factory...lion years ago Cyanobacteria predated more complex organisms
like multi-cellular plants and functioned in a world where the oxygen level of the biosphere was muc...
Time to rewrite the species rulebook, MSU scientists say
...ns are needed to catalogue bacteria single-celled organisms
with at least a 3.5 billion-year history. "It's important to point out the importance of these small microbes on Earth; even though they are small, their mass in soil and water is equal to that of all plants," said MSU microbiologist James Tiedje...
New RNA polymerase discovered in plants
...udied three kinds of RNA polymerase for decades in organisms
ranging from brewer's yeast to humans. In all euk...its of DNA. Without proper DNA methylation, higher organisms
from plants to humans have a host of developmental problems, from dwarfing in plants to tumor develo...
The shapes of life
...nique proteins that represent the variety found in organisms
ranging from bacteria to humans. Researchers can use these structures, which are determined experimentally, to build computer models of the structures of other proteins with related amino acid sequences. Although the main focus of the second phase ...
Scientists propose new approach to estimating global ocean productivity
... complex geometric skeletons, so-called "red tide" organisms
that produce toxins and photosynthetic bacteria that may be among the most abundant species on Earth. While scientists have used measurements of chlorophyll to estimate the size or biomass of phytoplankton stocks, they have been well aware of weakne...
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