Tag: "prefrontal" at biology news

UCLA scientists produce functioning neurons from human embryonic stem cells

...and study diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, prefrontal dementia and schizophrenia. Researchers previou...answers were looking for. We dont know what causes prefrontal dementia, Huntingtons disease or schizophrenia. The key is likely in the quality of neuronal communi...

Gene variant is associated with brain anatomy, clinical course of ADHD

... control attentionthe right orbitofrontal/inferior prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Similar regions were also generally thinner in participants with ADHD than those without. As a result of the overlapping main effects of genotype and diagnosis, there was a stepwise increment in cortical thickness in th...

MIT study: Maturity brings richer memories

...t. The MIT study indicates that a more developed prefrontal cortex (PFC) - an area of the brain long associated with higher-order thinking, planning, and reasoning -- may be responsible for creating richer memories in adults. Activation in the PFC follows an upward slope with age in contextual memories. Th...

Strength of connections between brain regions may affect an adolescent's response to peer influence

...ldren were also found to have more activity in the prefrontal cortex, an area important for decision making and inhibition of socially inappropriate behavior. This is important if we are to understand how the adolescent brain attains the right balance between acknowledging the influences of others and mainta...

$9M grant awarded to University of Cincinnati for bipolar disorder research

...ere changes are occurring. These areas include the prefrontal cortical and subcortical brain regions that form the anterior limbic network, the system primarily responsible for emotional and social behaviors. He and his BITREC team plan to further study these areas by visualizing them in healthy people and in...

Females more prone to brain damage from alcohol abuse

... Wiren and Hashimoto examined 5,000 genes from the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain implicated in comple...f the network of brain regions, in addition to the prefrontal cortex, involved in inhibitory control, and identified live and dead cells with tissue stains. "At...

Prenatal alcohol exposure alters brain activity in the frontal-striatal areas

...raged response. "We found two regions within the prefrontal cortex where the youth with alcohol-exposure histo... One possible explanation is that the increase in prefrontal cortical activation means that the alcohol-exposed youth need to devote more cortical resources than...

Pediatric ritalin use may affect developing brain, new study suggests

... as catecholamines and norepinephrine in the rats' prefrontal cortex -- a part of the mammalian brain responsible for higher executive thinking and decision-making. There were also significant changes in catecholamine function in the hippocampus, a center for memory and learning." Treatment-linked alterations...

Research study describes the role part of the brain plays in memory

...nctions. According to this experiment, part of the prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the social transmission...ossibility of one part of the brain, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, being linked to the social transmission of food preference. To do so, they applied a chemica...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

...ne hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in the medial prefrontal cortex as well as changes in several markers in striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. There were no apparent changes in brain structure with MPH treatment. Although the neurochemical changes were mostly short-lived, early MPH exposure in rats did ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... This week, Paz et al. investigated how the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) might facilitate this transfer. In a trace-conditioning task, cats learned to expect a liquid food reward (Gerbers pureed sweet potatoes and turkey) after a visual conditioned stimulus (CS). The authors made simultaneous recordings from...

Fragile X syndrome -- A stimulating environment restores neuronal function in mice

... electrophysiological properties of neurons in the prefrontal cortex, a region responsible for higher cognitive ...ion. The results of this study demonstrate that in prefrontal cortex of Fragile X knockout mice, excitatory synapses can show lasting increases in synaptic streng...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...onger form of the protein, is not expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of lesser apes and Old World monkeys. In the current study, they tested the expression of type II in the PFC of two great ape species, chimpanzees and orangutans, and found that it was not present. Since these two species diverged most r...

Dr. Michael Petrides: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

...s. He has demonstrated that a specific part of the prefrontal cortex, the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is critical for monitoring what is in our working memory, i.e. monitoring our thoughts and p...

New understanding of schizophrenia could lead to new treatment approaches

.... Recent evidence suggests that myelination of the prefrontal cortex (a brain area that has been implicated in schizophrenia) occurs not only during infancy and toddlerhood, but also during late adolescence or early adulthood just when schizophrenia strikes. "We now need to go back to patients with schizoph...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

...hor and neurobiology professor at Yale. The brains prefrontal cortex (PFC) normally is responsible for so-called executive functions. The ability of the PFC to maintain such memory-based functions declines with normal aging, is weakened in people with ADHD, and is severely disrupted in disorders such as schizop...

UT Metroplex institutions to collaborate on biomedical research

... magnetic resonance spectroscopy. "The role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala in self-harming behavior among depressed youth" Dr. John Hart, medical science director, Center for BrainHealth at UT Dallas, and Dr. Rongrong Tao, assistant professor of psychiatry at UT Southwestern. This project explores the n...

First impressions: Computer model behaves like humans on visual categorization task

...mporal cortex (IT), and on to higher areas such as prefrontal cortex (PFC) where object categorization is represented. The Poggio lab replicated the hypothetical computations the brain performs as information speeds forward through the visual pathway. They recently demonstrated that this biologically inspired m...

Brain tissue reveals possible genetic trigger for schizophrenia

...protein expression to resume. Using postmortem prefrontal cortical brain tissue of people with schizophrenia and persons who had no psychiatric illness, the researchers found for the first time a significant difference in the microRNA expression profile. Fifteen microRNAs were expressed at a lower level an...

Moral judgment fails without feelings

...n harm to many. Six had damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a small region behind the forehead, while 12 had brain damage elsewhere, and another 12 had no damage. The subjects with VMPC damage stood out in their stated willingness to harm an individual a prospect that usually generates stron...

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(Date:7/24/2014)... Parts of the primordial soup in which life arose have ... the University of East Anglia. , Research published today in ... in plants, yeast and very likely also in animals still ... origin of life some four billion years ago. , ... pond or ocean as a result of the combination of ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... Africa in mid-July 2014, as the annual fire season ... areas of increased temperatures, are heavily sprinkled across the ... Congo (northeast), and Zambia (southeast). Thick gray smoke rises ... especially in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, strong ... fire season is an annual event in this region, ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... Expanding on his work with a new drug that successfully ... of Houston has received a $250,000 grant to expand his ... effort to treat a wider range of autoimmune diseases., Chandra ... biomedical Engineering at UH, previously published a study in Arthritis ... that successfully treated lupus in mice and reduced the number ...
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