Tag: "sequences" at biology news
Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes
... team systematically searched the complete genomic sequences
from a broad range of taxa (mouse, rat, roundworm, fruit fly, mosquito, and pufferfish) for single-copy genes that had evolved more than one copy in humans. "Gene duplication is known to play a leading role in evolution for the creation of new genes...
Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
... ancient parasite are made up by splicing together sequences
in distant parts of the DNA genome. The research l... tRNAs can be made by copying from two distant DNA sequences
-- and joining them. The regions on the separate pieces, that allow them to find each other and spli...
Computer-aided protein design wins prestigious AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize
...hree-dimensional structure, specify the amino acid sequences
appropriate for generating it, determine the predicted result by computation, and finally, show that the protein has the correct topology at the atomic level by x-ray crystallography. That is the achievement reported in this path-breaking report, aut...
Map of human genetic variation across populations may promise improved disease treatments
...e same time, she said, haplotype blocks of genetic sequences
containing genetic variations seem to have been preserved for thousands of years. Genetic patterns may help point the way toward improved disease treatments. "Imagine that friends are giving you directions," Jasny suggested. "They might tell you th...
Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability
...tyl, methyl, and ubiquitin molecules in prescribed sequences
and patterns. One job of Ubp10, as identified in this study, is to remove ubiquitin from certain histones where ubiquitin is associated with gene activation and to maintain low levels of the ubiquitin molecule at those sites. Interestingly, Ubp10 ap...
California researchers help map human genetic variation across populations
...e, and we can do that by inferring haplotypes the sequences
of nucleotide bases in each copy of the chromosome." Halperin and Calit2 researcher Eleazar Eskin, who co-authored the study with Perlegen scientists, have pioneered a method for translating genotypes into haplotypes, using the HAP software tool they...
Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases
...her. Scientists are just learning whether many DNA sequences
previously believed to have no function actually may play specialized roles in cell behavior. While humans have introns, they don't have Group I introns. Many pathogens that cause human diseases, however, do have Group I introns, including the HIV o...
New species from old data
...species of the bacterium Wolbachia from the genome sequences
of the fruit fly Drosophila that are stored in the...enomic sequence of the host organism. Scanning raw sequences
can therefore lead to the identification of previously unknown endosymbionts. Salzberg and colleagu...
Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer
...terest in what secrets may lie undiscovered in the sequences
of other supposedly 'simple' amoeba genomes." Named for its effectiveness in killing other cells, E. histolytica was long considered to be a 'primitive' organism originating from the time that bacterial lineages diverged from eukaryotic lineag...
New dinosaur raptor found; First in Southern Hemisphere
... routinely assembles family trees based on genetic sequences
that number in the thousands. Hes working with experts in the Department of Biomedical Informatics, the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and the University of Tucuman in Argentina to develop software to sort through those mammoth databases and find connect...
NHGRI targets 12 more organisms for genome sequencing
...ndrobatidis). It has been shown that most sequences
of the human genome originated long before humans ...lves. Consequently, scientists will use the genome sequences
of the 11 non-mammalian animals to learn more about how, when and why the human genome came to be co...
DOE JGI launches IMG public online microbial genome data clearinghouse
...on effort. "There are hundreds of bacterial genome sequences
in multiple databases with hundreds of new genomes...easingly difficult task to track down all relevant sequences
to compare with your favorite gene." Andersen uses IMG for a project sponsored by the DOE Genomics:...
Oldest fossil human protein ever sequenced
... the amino acid sequence of this protein. Protein sequences
may be used in a similar way to DNA, to provide in...derthal from Shandivar Cave as well as osteocalcin sequences
from living primates (humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans). The team found that the Neander...
NYU and MSKCC research provides model for understanding chemically induced cancer initiation
...al differences in methylated and unmethylated DNA sequences
may be significant because of potential alterations in the cellular processing of these lesions by DNA transcription, replication, and repair enzymes," said NYU's Geacintov. "Because environmental chemical carcinogens, including those present in cig...
Cooperation is keya new way of looking at MicroRNA and how it controls gene expression
...sophila (fruit fly) genes if those genes contained sequences
complementary to the microRNA's sequence. But find...length and complementary sequence. And since these sequences
of the microRNA were known, a computer search through the three billion letters of the human genome ...
Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology
...lian cells tend to duplicate late and also include sequences
prone to forming kinks, or hairpin structures, like those observed in yeast. "The findings may ultimately help us better understand what goes wrong in cancer cells, an important step in developing a better plan of attack against the disease," Petes ...
Chemical engineer Kao explores antibiotic synthesis with DNA chips
...ds--similar to genetic recombination--and produces sequences
with multiple mutations more quickly. Think of a genome as a deck of cards, and inducing a beneficial mutation as slipping in a joker. It's easy to see which decks have jokers--or which strains produce more antibiotics. Imagine mixing and then separa...
Advances in the characterisation of the oyster mushroom genes
... said enzymatic activity. Also, using such genomic sequences
as a probe, it has been possible to detect what are the conditions under which the expression of each one of the genes is produced. This has enabled the synthesis of the cDNA of each gene and, by means of comparison with the corresponding genomic seq...
Consortium to create comprehensive tools for uncovering the functions of human, mouse genes
...le research reagents composed of short RNA hairpin sequences
carried in lentiviral vectors. These can be used in a wide range of cellular and animal studies to discover the key genes underlying normal physiology and diseases including cancer, diabetes and immunological responses. TRC will not only create and ...
Studies expand understanding of X chromosome
...team compared the human X chromosome to the genome sequences
of a variety of other organisms, including dog, ra...ical. Comparing gene order in the human and rodent sequences
showed several segments had reshuffled in the rodent lineage, and an interesting, 9 million base pai...
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