Tag: "shell" at biology news

Transmission rates of vCJD

...pressed SIPC is present in protein extracts of the shell and in all organs that are lined by cuticular tissues. We suggest that the SIPC is produced by the epidermal cells that produce the cuticle and discuss these observations with regard to earlier studies and the role of SIPC as a contact pheromone. ...

Mussels evolve quickly to defend against invasive crabs

...hells. Freeman looked at the inducible defense shell thickening of blue mussels (Mytlius edulis) in th...cribes them as "more worldly" expressed inducible shell thickening in the presence of Hemigrapsus. "The mussel's inducible response to H. sanguineus refl...

Microcapsules open in tumor cells

... laser impulse. The laser light cracks its polymer shell by heating it up and the capsule' TM s contents ar... that the bonds broke between the polymers and the shell and the capsules eventually opened. For the time being, the scientists have only been trying out t...

Sugar metabolism tracked in living plant tissues, in real time

... the third from a bacterium; the shape of the clam shell protein determines which sugar or other molecule the sensor can detect. When a target molecule such as glucose or sucrose binds to the third protein, the hinge opens, changing the distance and orientation of the fluorescent proteins. This physical ch...

ACS News Service Weekly PressPac -- August 30, 2006

...vity. The new silica gel beads form a protective shell around the enzymes. It protects the enzymes from air and moisture for extended periods on store shelves and after packaging has been opened. The coating dissolves quickly, however, and releases the enzymes when conditions are right in the washing mac...

The sweet science: Viruses switch grip to gain upper hand

...rmful." The idea that proteins on a virus' outer shell mutate to get a more lethal grip on a cell's sugar... "A single amino-acid change in the virus' protein shell changes how it can grip the cell, making it more deadly," she said. "Actually, the affinity is reduc...

Engineer ramps up protein production, develops versatile viral spheres

... viral capsids. The capsids are based on the outer shell of a naturally occurring virus that infects E. coli bacteria. They are formed when 180 copies of the same protein assemble into a nanoscale soccer ball. "We think these little spheres, 27 nanometers in diameter, will form the basis for a new class ...

HIV gets a makeover

...alled TRIM5 that, in monkeys, recognizes the outer shell or "capsid" of HIV-1 but not that of SIV. By swapping out the capsid region of the HIV-1 genome for that of the monkey virus, and then selectively growing the viruses that replicated most robustly, over several generations Hatziioannou created an HIV...

Bacteria that use radiated water as food

...ansion of Earth's biosphere, the three-dimensional shell that encompasses all planetary life. The research has less Earthly implications, however. It will likely fuel optimism that life exists in other deep subsurface environments, such as in groundwater beneath the permafrost on Mars. "We know surprisin...

Steep oxygen decline halted first land colonization by Earth's sea creatures

...by respiratory efficiency. For instance, a mollusk shell is typically thought of as protection for the marine creature, he said, but it turns out the shell actually channels water across the gill to deliver oxygen. "An unshelled mollusk has a far greater...

Tweedle coat fashions stocky flies

...mpressed. "It's not a trivial matter to put a shell on from the inside," explained Steven Wasserman, a professor of biology who headed the research team. "An insect needs to build up the flexibility, strength and shape of each part before sealing the outside. If you've ever peeled a golf ball, you r...

A prickly subject: The sea urchin genome is sequenced

...th surrounded by five teeth on the bottom of their shell and excrete through a hole at the top. The sea urchin has long had a strong fan base among scientists. One reason it was chosen for the genome-sequencing project is the size of the sea urchin research community. Over 140 laboratories are usin...

Sandia researchers discover way to see how a drug attaches to a cell

...eres remain intact. The thickness of the platinum shell around the sphere can be controlled by reducing or increasing the amount of the platinum salt placed into the solution. Shelnutt sees many potential applications for this process, including "nanotagging" biological structures such as drug molecules....

Extraordinary life found around deep-sea gas seeps

...ite bacterial mats. Most sites also had extensive shell beds consisting of live and dead shells of various types of clams and mussels. These were fringed with stands of another type of deep-sea tube worm that is also gutless and relies on symbiotic bacteria for its nutrition. Corals and, at two of the sit...

Patterns on tropical marine mollusk shell mirror gene expression patterns

...the formation of shapes and colour patterns on the shell of the tropical marine mollusc referred to as 'aba... reveals that the shape and colour patterns on the shell of the mollusc mirror the localised expression of specific genes in the mantle, a layer of skin situ...

Microcapsules like it hot and salty

...ich exactly describes the processes in the polymer shell of the capsules. This means that is possible to pr... substance through to the inside. Then the capsule shell must be sealed to enclose the contents so that they can be released at the location where they are t...

NIH selects Purdue to use phi29 DNA packaging motor for National Nanomedicine Development Center

...otor to package DNA and move it into the capsid, a shell made of proteins, as part of the viral reproduction process. The viral motor is geared by six packaging ribonucleic acid (pRNA) molecules arranged in a ring. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the same biological energy used for muscle movement, fuels the...

Weighty viruses

...r how many building blocks are used to make up the shell of the virus or how many copies of the genetic material it contains. These highly precise measurements were made possible by the special structure of the ion trap; instead of a classic quadrupole ion trap, Chang and co-workers chose to use a cylind...

Researchers study role of natural organic matter in environment

...ge, and the energy it takes to break the hydration shell of water molecules around the ions, Kalinichev said. Metal ions in water are usually hydrated, which means they are surrounded by water molecules. For these ions to form strong complexes with natural organic matter, the attached water molecules mus...

ACS News Service Weekly PressPac -- January 24, 2007

... Like a chickens egg, the structure has an outer shell that encloses a "yolk" that can be released from the shell. In their experiments, the researchers used a yolk consisting of iron and platinum, the metal responsible for the activity of the widely used chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. Cultures of hum...

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