Tag: "synthesized" at biology news

Emory chemists develop bacteria that may help decaffeinate coffee

...evel of caffeine is that in the plant, caffeine is synthesized very quickly, but breaks down to theophylline very slowly. "We know that there is an enzyme that breaks caffeine down into theophylline, but we don't know much about it," says Gallivan, an assistant professor of chemistry. "What we do know is that i...

Experimental drug prevents vaginal simian HIV transmission in monkeys Science study says

...nce society. The experimental drug is a chemically synthesized protein called PSC-RANTES, designed by Science coauthors Robin Offord and Oliver Hartley from the University of Geneva in Geneva, Switzerland. It acts by preventing SHIV (and, when human cells are concerned, HIV) from latching on to cell-surface re...

Identifying genes that contribute to a low level of response to alcohol

...and with appropriate keywords (n= 135). They then synthesized the studies' results, searching for potential patterns. Reviewers identified several genes that may contribute to a low LR to alcohol, and thus, to an elevated risk for alcohol-use disorders. The genes of potential interest fall into several catego...

Muscle loss from space travel, prolonged inactivity linked to two genes

...n in two ways: by decreasing the amount of protein synthesized and by increasing the rate at which muscle protein is degraded. The intracellular signals that drive muscle protein to these extremes, however, are not well known. When designing her study, Kandarian chose to investigate the role of nfb1 and ...

'Blind' cells see the light; maybe someday humans will, too

...econd step was to wash the cells with a chemically synthesized switch that gloms onto the cysteine hook. The photoswitch an azobenzene compound was built like a drain plug on a rigid tether, so that when the end of the tether binds to cysteine, the plug fits snugly into the potassium channel. The chemical was ...

Findings show how toxic proteins rob Alzheimer's patients of memory

...h ADDLs obtained from human brain tissue and ADDLs synthesized in the laboratory. Experiments showed that all the ADDLs, regardless of origin, showed the same pattern of binding to synapses on specific neurons. What is striking about ADDLs, said Klein, is that they disrupt the neurons' ability to communicate wit...

Mutations in transporter protein shed light on neurodegenerative disorders

... cell so that it can be reincorporated in to newly synthesized proteins. In Salla Disease and ISSD, the sialic acid is removed from the protein, but it is not released from the lysosome." Genetic studies have shown that mutations in a single gene encoding a protein called sialin are responsible for both dis...

DNA molecules used to assemble nanoparticles

...ers also carried a single-stranded, non-coding DNA synthesized by Choi. In a solution of two different kinds of ...ibrary of single-functional dendrimers that can be synthesized in parallel, rather than sequentially, and then linked together in many different combinations with ...

Molecular probes for biology research and drug discovery

... compounds". These are generally complex molecules synthesized by animals or plants and have been optimized for a specific purpose over a period of millions of years via an evolutionary process. The molecular libraries will subsequently be tested in a variety of biological screens. In these automated tests the s...

Biology in four dimensions

...w machine is needed, a few crucial last pieces are synthesized and then the apparatus is assembled. Holding off on the last components enables the cell to prevent building machines at the wrong times. That's a different scenario from what happens in bacteria, which usually start production of all the parts, from...

Promising anti-TB compound finally can be synthesized with ease

...ti-tuberculosis activity but cannot be efficiently synthesized using conventional chemistry, is being reported by University at Buffalo organic chemists online on Feb. 10 in Angewandte Chemie International Edition. The UB researchers' method synthesizes the compound in days rather than months, requires fe...

Computer-aided protein design wins prestigious AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize

A process whereby a computer-designed protein was synthesized and confirmed to match the original plan earned th...designed a large, complex protein on the computer, synthesized it, and then confirmed that its three-dimensional structure closely matched their original plan. The...

Fine-tuning calf nutrition could reduce nitrogen pollution

... and good health. Some of these amino acids can be synthesized by an animals metabloism; others cannot. The ones that cannot be synthesized are called "essential" amino acids. For humans and other non-ruminants swine, for example the re...

Nobel laureates to open ASBMB annual meeting in San Diego

...sterol and fatty acids in animal cells. SREBPs are synthesized as transmembrane proteins. One of the ends of the protein is a transcription factor that projects into the cytosol and is cleaved by RIP. By modulating the processing of SREBPs, RIP directly controls membrane lipid composition and indirectly controls...

Scientists discover that host cell lipids facilitate bacterial movement

...with the formation of new actin filaments. PIP3 is synthesized from PIP2 by an enzyme called PI3-kinase. The lipids attract and modify the functions of proteins involved in regulating actin assembly. PIP2 and PIP3 also prevent capping proteins from binding to the ends of actin filaments, allowing new actin filam...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

...short, double-stranded RNA molecules that could be synthesized quickly and inexpensively to silence a single gene. Promising targets could include viruses like HIV and hepatitis C or cancer-causing oncogenes. An RNAi-based treatment for age-related macular degeneration is already in clinical trials." Ruvkun i...

'Second messenger' NAADP shows fast, dose-related impact on satiety cycle

... Cholecystokinin is a naturally-occurring chemical synthesized both in the small intestine and in the brain when eating. Cholecystokinin is a first messenger that tells cells to release digestive enzymes in the pancreas and to cause satiety in the brain. "The more cholecystokinin that's produced, the more diges...

Experts on iron-sulfur proteins to meet in Madison, Wisconsin

...eins, the mechanism by which the Fe-S clusters are synthesized and inserted into proteins is poorly understood. H...ncrease the understanding of how Fe-S clusters are synthesized and inserted into proteins. As well, the 20 symposium speakers will also focus on the role of Fe-S p...

Ancient enzyme guides healthy eating in mammals

... proteins. While many of the 20 amino acids can be synthesized internally, eight "essential" amino acids must be obtained from food. Scientists have long known that omnivorous animals will consume substantially less of a meal lacking a single essential amino acid, in comparison to an otherwise identical meal tha...

PNAS highlights for the week of April 18 - 22

.... Richard Jove, Gerhard Eisenbrand, and colleagues synthesized and characterized 10 indirubin derivatives. One derivative, E804, inhibited Stat3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines, and in vitro E804 blocked c-Src activity. Cancer cells treated with E804 showed a decrease in the levels of activated...

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(Date:10/17/2014)... . To date, ... overdoses, doctors are often limited to supportive therapy such as ... combination of drugs involved. So what can be done if ... ETH professor Jean-Christophe Leroux from the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences ... question. "The task was to develop an agent that could ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... efficiently, they are anything but sustainable: environmental damage ... is becoming increasingly evident. Despite their disadvantages, however, ... regarded as the sole possibility of achieving higher ... Bernhard Schmid, an ecology professor at the University ... agriculture and forestry. After all, a new study ...
(Date:10/15/2014)... As our ability to assess the pandemic risk from ... developments, we must not allow ourselves to become complacent ... an international consortium of scientists. , Influenza pandemics arise ... have yet to develop widespread immunity – spreads in ... in the past 100 years, the worst of which ...
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