Tag: "axons" at medical news
Psychiatric Symptoms May Signal Brain Damage From Diet Pills
...hes of a tree, neurons contain extensions called axons
that transport messenger chemicals like serotonin and form synapses -- connections with other neurons. Fenfluramines damage serotonin-secreting neurons by pruning these axons, which do not grow back in monkeys, although studies show that they do in...
Steroids May Reverse Loss Of Substance Tied To Nervous-System Diseases
...ntinual synthesis of myelin by Schwanncells around axons
of neurons. In their new work, researchers added variousforms of steroids and antagonists, observing their effects on the cellsunder a fluorescence digital-imaging microscope. When dexamethasone andprogesterone were added, individually, to the tiss...
Cut Nerve Fibers Are Repaired In An Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury; May Help Repair Nerve Damage In Humans
...mmals, including humans, usually cannot regenerate axons
that are severed inthe CNS. At present, the functions once controlled by those axons
cannot berestored. Severed PNS axons
regenerate very slowly, about one millimeter or1/25th of an i...
Neurobiologists Show How The Brain Processes Signals From Pheromones
...tructurecalled the vomeronasal organ project their axons
to a specialized part of theolfactory bulb--the ac...t express the samepheromone receptor project their axons
to multiple targets in the accessoryolfactory bulb, called glomeruli. There are about 15 glomeruli i...
Penn study shows that head trauma produces Alzheimer's-like neurodegeneration
... The researchers further observed that the damaged axons
produced A-beta,a sticky-like substance that helps sets the stage for the subsequent developmentof Alzheimer's-like plaques. (The investigators have surmised that theproduction of A-beta in trauma results from the action of a still-unidentifiedprote...
UI study suggests variable effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on brain
...7 mg percent) for several weeks or months had more axons
in their corpuscallosums than did control animals. These axons
conduct signals from one side ofthe brain to the other. In contrast, Miller said, the research on hu...
A growth factor reverses nerve damage in diabetic animals
...erve cells and their branch-like extensions called axons
are vulnerable to abnormally high levels of glucos... sympathetic nervous system, the outermost tips of axons
swell into doorknob-like structures as a result. These nerve endings allow nerve cells to communicat...
Chiropractic neurologists managing patients' autism, stroke, other disorders, according to Journal of the American Chiropractic Association (JACA)
...at some type of connection between inflammation of axons
and pain in distant parts of the body does exist. ...ar tissue may continue to affect nearby nerves and axons
by limiting their normal movements. "There are a lot of unanswered questions about why what chiropra...
Yale researcher finds new clue to what blocks nerve fibers from regrowing following spinal cord injury or disease
...d. What the researchers found is a receptor on the axons
to which the Nogo protein binds. It is this receptor, Strittmatter said, that inhibits the axons
regenerative growth. "The current identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 action should great...
Area of brain found to play key role in initiating memory storage
...ical signals carrying auditory information through axons
traveling one way from the medial geniculate (MG) nucleus in the thalamus. New research published in the Jan. 1 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience suggests that the amygdala plays a pivotal role in the initial process of storing memory elsewhere in...
Penn Engineering's David Meaney wins Y.C. Fung Award, a top honor for young bioengineering researchers
...under force. Meaneys work has helped identify how axons
respond after they are distorted, when they become...ported in April that they had succeeded in growing axons
by stretching them, offering a potential new means of bridging damaged areas of the nervous system. ...
New horizons of nerve repair
...t facilitate the regeneration of adult spinal cord axons
through and beyond spinal cord lesions," Sakiyama-Elbert said. "The scaffolds are drug-delivery systems consisting of protein matrices containing growth factors that are released in a sustained manner during tissue regeneration." The scaffolds can ...
Study suggests bipolar disorder may cause progressive brain damage
...an indication that the integrity of neurons and/or axons
has been compromised in some way, either by damage, loss or dysfunction," Deicken said. The decrease of hippocampal NAA over time in the test subjects indicates a progressive nature of this disease. Decreasing levels of NAA are also seen in neurodege...
Nanoneurosurgery, search for E-T life, bioscan technology and home holograms at frontiers of optics
...urgery" in living nematodes, by cutting individual axons
(threadlike structures that connect nerve cells) in the organism without killing the nerve cell or disrupting the surrounding tissue. Compared to traditional biochemical or mechanical methods of manipulating tissue, femtosecond micromanipulation is ...
Brain transportation system defect linked to Huntington's by UCSD team
...appears to physically blocks traffic in the narrow axons
that are the long pipes of the nerve cells. Although defective huntingtin genes have previously been linked to Huntington's disease, this is the first study to illustrate that the defective protein may cause neuronal damage by aggregating (sticking...
Antidepressants decrease chronic pain by inhibiting TNF production in brain, UB researchers find
...er norepinephrine from nerve terminals along their axons
inhibits the conscious perception of pain," said Spengler. Norepinephrine acts similarly to adrenaline, which is released from the adrenal gland in response to arousal and stress, such as might occur during combat, for example. Increases in adrenali...
A new technique detects earliest signs of Alzheimer's in healthy people
...s the fatty insulation around the long, cable-like axons
of neurons; gray matter contains the bodies of neurons. In a person with Alzheimer's disease, the gray matter is largely destroyed. In future studies, Dr. Rusinek expects to find a greater loss of gray matter in people who are likely to develop the ...
Midlife brain crisis spawns late-life Alzheimer's
...cks myelin, disrupts message transfer through the axons
and eventually leads to the brain/mind-destroying plaques and tangles visible years later in the cortex of Alzheimer's patients. Bartzokis' analysis of magnetic resonance images and post-mortem tissue data suggests that genetic factors coupled with t...
Scientists restore crucial myelin in brains of mice
...t produced myelin which coated or "ensheathed" the axons
of cells in the brain. "These cells infilt...tensive. He estimates that about 10 percent of the axons
in the mouse brains were remyelinated, compared to a tiny fraction of 1 percent in previous studies....
Understanding nerve degeneration in spastic paraplegia
...the onset of motor skill impairment. The number of axons
containing these abnormal mitochondria was far greater than the number of swollen and degenerate axons. The authors suggest that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. In an accompanying co...