Tag: "synaptic" at medical news

Neurotransmission Machinery Visualized For The First Time

...and their colleagues report the elucidation of the synaptic fusioncomplex's intricate molecular structure in t...sms, such as those used by viruses to infectcells, synaptic fusion employs a protein agent to meld two membranes. But unlikeviral mechanisms, in which the fusio...

Repeated Exposure To Cocaine Alters Brain Structure

...r neurons. Suchstructural changes probably enhance synaptic connectivity, improving theefficiency with which m...withdrawal from it. "We propose that the increased synaptic connectivity resulting from repeatedexposure to cocaine and amphetamines produces a hypersensitivity...

Do Neurons Learn By Growing Thorns? Emergence Of Dendritic Spines Is Associated With Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity

...ed that long-term potentiation (a strengthening of synaptic connectionsthat is thought to be the cellular basi...at memories are encoded in the changing strengthof synaptic connections in the brain, that is, in the effectiveness with whichone neuron in the brain communicat...

Nerve Cells Live Long And Talkative Lives In Sculpted Colonies On Silicon Chips

...tbed and grow, sending out processes and reforming synaptic contacts witheach other. They can live on the chip...ences, can both observe the spontaneous patternsof synaptic activity that occur with the neurons talking to each other. "We can eavesdrop," said Brinton, "and t...

Use it or lose it applies to nervous system, scientists find

... you get those receptors back," Lichtman says. The synaptic region of a muscle fiber contains a protein scaffo...s can scurry in andout of synapses strengthens the synaptic hypothesis of learning. "It comes as asurprise that the stable, stupid neuromuscular junction of mam...

Pathway may provide target for treating chronic pain

...ertain conditions, the receptor movesitself to the synaptic part of the neuron. That movement activates the fo... It's actuallya marvelously simple way to regulate synaptic strength. You silence a synapse bytaking away receptors and strengthen it by adding more receptors."...

Yale scientists discover new technique for studying living cells, furthering knowledge of diseases like Parkinson's

...to observe the activity of mitochondria inside the synaptic terminal of a neuron, where information is passed from one neuron to the next. "The effectiveness of this information transfer can change in time, and it is this kind of change that is thought to underlie learning," said Elizabeth A. Jonas, M.D., an ...

Brains of those in certain professions shown to have more synapses

...that they store thisinformation in the form of new synaptic connections between neurons," Black said. No significant differences were found in the subjects' occipital cortex or in the numbers of thesecond type of synapse, suggesting that professional training may affect only certain types ofsynapses. The st...

Study describes brain changes during learning

...ed with that learning, the strength of synaptic connections between neurons in the motor cortex ha...TP. Importantly, the overall range of synaptic modification the maximum possible increase or decrease in strength had not changed, sa...

Mouse provides clues about chronic pain

...ord to the brain. Under normal conditions, these synaptic transmissions are handled by neuronal receptors called glutamate AMPA and kainate receptors. However, when excessive information reaches these synapses between nerve cells, normally-dormant NMDA receptors can be activated, and a series of intracellul...

UCSF researchers move in on role of brain's naturally occurring marijuana

...tedly and intensely, thereby "strengthening" their synaptic connections with other nerve cells. The strengthen...Marijuana, meanwhile, could be inciting changes in synaptic strength left and right, causing a chaotic pattern of changes in synaptic strength. Alternatively, t...

New research shows even a single drug exposure can alter brain function

...ing (between 5 and 10 days) increase in excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area of the brain in rats and mice. The increase in synaptic currents that were activated by cocaine had many similarities to the changes in neural activity invo...

Researchers discover 'doorways' into brain cells

...tudies over the past five years had indicated that synaptic strength could be controlled by removing or inserting postsynaptic receptors from the membrane," said Ehlers. "And a major unresolved question was where exactly do these receptors get removed from that membrane." While microscopic studies of neuro...

'Reset switch' for brain cells discovered

... a neuron makes to its neighbors. At each of these synaptic connections, one neuron triggers the firing of a n...s called neurotransmitters across a gap called the synaptic cleft. Such homeostatic plasticity takes place over periods of hours or days and adjusts all a neuro...

Scientists map maturation of the human brain

... The scientists found no significant difference in synaptic density between rats that had social stress during adolescence or rats that had early RMS. However, the density of synapses in the hippocampus of both groups was reduced significantly when compared with control rats. These findings are the first to d...

Environmental influences found to have role for development and function of the pain system

...mental mechanisms thus determine the structure and synaptic strengths in the "pain" transmission system. Scientists now know that synaptic strength can also be modified for prolonged periods of time in the adult following injury, trauma, o...

Researchers identify enzyme that may turn fleeting experience into lasting memory

...rotein synthesis, which is necessary to change the synaptic connections that underlie memory," Hegde said. "This could help look at how genes work to form new connections among synapses." In collaboration with Josyf Mychaleckyj, D.Phil., of the Wake Forest Center for Human Genomics, Hegde said, the human and ...

Language 'center' of brain shifts with age

...f the central nervous system, and the 'pruning' of synaptic connections; the decrease among older subjects perhaps reflects compensation for age-related loss of functional capacity."...

Scientists uncover how brain retrieves and stores older memories

...emories is thought to involve the strengthening of synaptic connections between groups of neurons. Remembering involves the reactivation of the same group, or network, of neurons. As memories age, the networks gradually change. Initially, memories for everyday life events appear to depend on networks in the r...

Alzheimer's pathology reduced, longevity improved in mouse model, Gladstone study shows

... In contrast, increasing Fyn in the brain worsened synaptic damage, and also increased the number of premature...t that Fyn plays a key role in Alzheimer's-related synaptic impairments, and that it can worsen the toxicity of amyloid proteins," says lead author Jeannie Chin...

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