Tag: "myelin" at medical news
American Academy of Neurology sums up scientific highlights from 57th annual meeting
...owed that when immune cells destroy the insulating myelin
around neurons, a molecule called 7-ketocholesterol is released. This molecule may stimulate other immune cells to attack the neuron. Understanding this important step may help design therapies to block it. [S12.004] Meanwhile, researchers from the U...
Infants with rare genetic disease saved by cord blood stem cells
...dren are missing an enzyme critical to forming the myelin
sheath that protects developing brain cells from damage. Moreover, the findings add to the growing body of evidence showing that cord blood can save children with other fatal "lysosomal storage diseases," each of which stems from a specific enzyme de...
Investigating 'brain shrinkage' in alcoholics
...trol the manufacture of structural proteins of the myelin
was reduced in the alcoholic cases. In addition, ...ges likely alter the structure and function of the myelin
sheath and ultimately the conduction of nerve impulses." - It is important for people who abuse a...
Why good cells go bad in progression of MS
...at during MS, renegade T-effector cells damage the myelin
coating that covers nerve cells, causing the disease's symptoms. While another subset of white blood cells called T-regulatory cells normally control the activation of T-effector cells, investigators found that the chemical messenger interleukin-12 o...
Neural cell transplants fight immune attack in mice with multiple sclerosis
...e suggests that the body successfully repairs some myelin
damaged in MS, but not enough to keep up with its ... disease were able to migrate to multiple areas of myelin
and nerve fiber damage in mice with an MS-like disease, repair this damage, and restore clinical fun...
Discovery of T-cell 'traffic control' boosts new drug promise
...ing disease in which the body's T cells attack the myelin
coating of nerve cells and disrupt their function. Neither Goetzl nor Rosen is involved in the on-going clinical trials of the new drugs and neither has financial ties to the companies that manufacture them. Controlling this process with drugs offer...
New research offers clues to prevent brain damage in premature babies
...rmally mature to become oligodendrocytes that make myelin
(the insulating sheath surrounding nerve fibers in...roduce HA, which accumulates on nerve fibers where myelin
is missing. "Preterm birth can interrupt the normal myelination process. Therefore, this report ma...
Promising diagnostic tools for multiple sclerosis developed at Yale
...ling neurological disease resulting from damage to myelin
insulation surrounding nerve fibers, and to nerve ... to recognize and interact with a form of modified myelin
found in MS. This myelin
was not recognized with the antibodies that did not cause disease. "Our re...
Water channel protein implicated in relative of multiple sclerosis
...focus of research in the past century has been the myelin
that insulates nerve fibers, and the cell that manufactures myelin, known as the oligodendrocyte," said Lennon. The Mayo Clinic group's work reveals that the protein targeted by the NMO antibody is not a component of myelin, or of oligodendrocytes. A...
Definitive gene screen confirms MS suspects
...the brain and spinal cord resulting in the loss of myelin
and sometimes the nerve fibers themselves. Depending on which nerve fibers are hindered, patients can experience problems ranging from weakness and clumsiness to numbness, visual disturbances, and even emotional and intellectual alterations. In some ...
Johns Hopkins researchers discover key protein linked to transverse myelitis and multiple sclerosis
...ligodendrocytes, which help produce the protective myelin
sheath coating around nerve cells. The findings offer one possible mechanism responsible for demyelinating disorders, such as TM and MS, and may aid in the development of effective therapies against these disorders, the researchers say. "This is the ...
Myelin suppresses plasticity in the mature brain
...lasticity." Strittmatter's laboratory studies how myelin
in the central nervous system physically limits ax...od supply is cut off. A physiological role for the myelin
inhibitor pathway has not been defined. Blocking vision in one eye normally alters ocular dominance...
Tryptophan no turkey in boosting immune system, Stanford study shows
..., the immune system launches an attack against the myelin
sheath, the fatty cells that insulate neurons. The resulting variety of neurological disorders affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Soothing the overactive immune system of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis requires something ...
Over-the-counter arthritis drug might also help against MS, Jefferson neuroscientists find
...cting the central nervous system (CNS). In MS, the myelin
coating of nerve fibers becomes inflamed and scarred. As a result, "messages" cannot be sent through the nervous system. Dr. Rostami and his group used an animal model of MS called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which mimics the hu...
Dendritic cells offer new therapeutic target for drugs to treat MS and other autoimmune disease
...osis, a disease that causes T-cells to destroy the myelin
protein sheath around nerves in the central nervou... mouse model, investigators found that more of the myelin
sheath was preserved in mice treated with CEP-701 than those not treated. Small cautions that massi...
Blockade of fat hormone helps halt and heal multiple sclerosis
... from destruction of the nerve-insulating material myelin
by activated T cells. Leptin is known to play a critical role in the regulation of food intake, metabolism, and the immune response. Since it had been previously shown that leptin is expressed in active inflammatory lesions of the central nervous sys...
JCI table of contents, January 26, 2006
...ding bacteria, but also in the attack of one's own myelin
during MS. The authors suggest that identifying how TLR9 and MyD88 become activated may lead to new therapies for MS. TITLE: Innate immunity mediated by TLR9 modulates pathogenicity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis AUTHOR CONTACT: Marco ...
Stanford doctors spotlight fatal flaw in multiple sclerosis drug trial
...ults when the immune system attacks the protective myelin
sheath surrounding nerve cells, causing them to misfire and leading to loss of motor control and possibly paralysis. Tysabri appeared to block this effect and, after the first year of the two-year clinical trials, did not appear to cause more infecti...
Combining multiple treatments improves multiple sclerosis therapy
... white blood cells known as lymphocytes attack the myelin
insulation on nerves in the spinal cord and brain....on and reversal of clinical MS severity, with less myelin
loss, CNS inflammation, and MS disease incidence. The authors then treated isolated inflammatory cel...
Cell therapy slows progression of an inherited neurological disease; Improves motor skills in mice
...f an enzyme and causes loss of the white matter or myelin
protecting nerve fibers. Without myelin, nerves ca...e in Milan, Italy, transplanted cells that produce myelin
into the brains of newborn MLD mice. The researchers found that the transplanted myelin-producing ce...