Tag: "neurons" at medical news

Chemotherapy temporarily affects the structures of the human brain

...es have shown physical changes in the brain and in neurons caused by chemotherapy drugs. In human studies, however, the little data that is available is only available through imaging and is not consistent in the long-term. In addition, lack of controls in studies makes it difficult discern cancer- versus dr...

More insight into Alzheimer's disease with Stanford discovery of possible cause

...oteins. "We tried to see what happens if we block neurons from getting this beneficial signal," said Wyss-Co...eta pathway was active everywhere else besides the neurons of the mice. Unable to receive the beneficial TGF-beta signal, the rodents with the broken pathway ...

Ultrasound mammography, volcano monitoring for aircraft safety

... Jonathan Fritz, is that the re-tuning of auditory neurons in adult mammal brains happens very rapidly, sugge...ating a cocktail party scene might be tuning their neurons to specific voices (and hence tuning out others), or aligning their sensitivity to the acoustic feat...

Cell wall of pneumonia bacteria can cause brain and heart damage

... pneumoniae that escape from the bloodstream enter neurons (brain cells). In a previous report published in t...at in the mouse model, cell wall fragments damaged neurons in the part of the brain called the hippocampus. Tuomanen is senior author of both reports. In the c...

Synchronous neuronal firing may underlie Parkinson's disease

...entions that restore the normal synchrony of these neurons in the brain may potentially be beneficial in trea...isease were caused by decreases in the activity of neurons in the motor cortex. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that neurons release to their neig...

Dopamine imbalances cause sleep disorders in animal models of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia

...ome impaired. Once 60 percent to 70 percent of the neurons are knocked out of commission, the jerky movements..., when a signal needs to travel through the brain, neurons release dopamine to transport the signal across the gap, or synapse, between neurons. A kind of prot...

Study identifies possible mechanism for brain damage in Huntington's disease

...chers found that PGC-1a levels in those particular neurons were much lower among mice with the HD mutation t...ion resulted in significantly less degeneration of neurons that expressed the injected PGC-1a than of other striatal cells, suggesting that it may be possible ...

Penn researchers find Lou Gehrig's, FTD disease protein

...udgment and comportment), or the spinal cord motor neurons (the control centers regulating the ability to wal...gressive neurological disorder that destroys motor neurons dementia can also be a later complication. While most people have heard of ALS because it affect...

Human brain region functions like digital computer, says CU-Boulder professor

...the same operating principles in the brain. "The neurons in the prefrontal cortex are binary -- they have t...ike a social network than a digital computer, with neurons communicating to allow learning and the creation of memory, according to O'Reilly. However, the co...

Brain cell and face perception research wins Eppendorf/Science Prize

...ns of the temporal lobe in the macaque brain where neurons respond more strongly to faces than any other obje...igned experiments using recordings from individual neurons to discover what it is about a face that these cells like. Surprisingly, most of the neurons respond...

Progesterone shows promise as treatment for traumatic brain injuries

...esterone is critical for the normal development of neurons in the brain and exerts protective effects on damaged brain tissue. Study participants were enrolled at Grady Memorial Hospital (the site of the study because it is Atlanta's only Level 1 Trauma Center). To be a candidate for the study, patients ha...

Serotonin receptor: A rheostat in brain for emotion that may be linked to depression

... In contrast, the 5-HT1A autoreceptor on serotonin neurons in the brain stem is rather uniform: it reduces the neuron's activity and its subsequent release of serotonin to downstream targets, a process called negative feedback inhibition. As more serotonin is released and becomes available in the brain, the ...

Leptin has powerful effect on reward center in the brain

...ignaling, via its receptor, occurs in the dopamine neurons in the VTA and that it results in decreased activi...ected activity in the VTA, which contains dopamine neurons that are important in modulating motivated behavior, addiction and reward. Reducing the function o...

Elevated testosterone kills nerve cells

...hways. Overstimulation of the apoptotic program in neurons has been associated with several neurological illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease....

First evidence that musical training affects brain development in young children

...ith the electrical fields generated when groups of neurons (nerve cells) fire in synchrony. When a sound is ...hildren matured, the electrical conduction between neurons in their brains worked faster. Of most interest, the Suzuki children showed a greater change ove...

Mirrors in the mind: New studies elucidate how the brain reflects onto itself the actions of others

... Current Biology, published by Cell Press. Mirror neurons were first identified in the cortex of macaque monkeys: A particular subset of these neurons fire when, for example, a monkey picks up a banana, and when the monkey observes a human picking up ...

Brain's action center is all talk

...bib carried out one of the first studies of mirror neurons in humans with Giacomo Rizzolatti of the Universit...," a frequently cited article that proposed mirror neurons are involved in language. (Arbib also edited "From Action to Language Via the Mirror System," an upc...

New treatments for epilepsy may benefit patients at University of Virginia

...seizure, brain waves from thousands of the brain's neurons start firing together. It's the opposite of what happens in a heart attack when the heart muscle beats wildly. "The idea behind the RNS is that a small electrical discharge, less than that of a battery across your thumb, will be enough to stop a seiz...

Amateur boxing linked to brain cell injury

... the days following a bout, indicating injuries to neurons and other cells important to brain function, accor... to the astroglia, specialized cells that surround neurons to insulate and support them. An increase in this chemical was also recently found in patients who ...

Barrow receives a $382,869 grant from the National Institutes of Health

...mas (HH). Dr. Wu and his colleagues will study the neurons from the tumors to understand why HH causes gelast...hat most of the cells within the tissue are unique neurons that act like pacemakers with firing characteristics. They have identified that 90 percent of the ne...

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(Date:4/18/2014)... Asteroid and comet impacts can cause widespread ecological ... even global scales. But new research from Brown University ... ancient life at the time of an impact. , ... has found fragments of leaves and preserved organic compounds ... in Argentina. The material could provide a snapshot of ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... A drug under clinical trials to treat tuberculosis ... drugs that act against various bacteria, fungal infections and ... University of Illinois chemists and collaborators. , Led by ... determined the different ways the drug SQ109 attacks the ... target other pathogens from yeast to malaria and ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... of stem cell therapies to cure a variety of ... populations based on cell surface markers. Researchers from the ... is highly expressed in a type of stem cells ... in an article in BioResearch Open Access , ... The article is available free on the ...
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